Chem Quiz- Nuclear Chemistry

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x= Atom’s symbol
Mass number of atom (protons+ neutrons
number of protons (atomic number)
charge (protons + electrons)
where is X
the middle
where is C
the top right
where is m
the top left
where is A
the bottom left
Alpha Radiation: what is emitted?
Alpha Radiation: what is emitted?
Relative abundance equation
***remember to multiply by 100 otherwise you will be incorrect***
(isotope 1 mass)x + (isotope 2 mass)1-x = the avererage mass (what you see in the periodic table)
Half life equation: (fIRST PART)
– use dimesional analysis to find the amount of half lives its been through (Can be less than one)
Half life equation (Second part)
amount left = (starting mass)(1/2)^ # of half lives it has went through
Alpha decay
– slims down but getting rid or 2 protons and 2 neutrons
beta decay
beta decay
beta particles shot out of the original isotope , lower number of neutrons but increase number of protons
beta decay
neutron turning into a proton
electron decay
pulling things in
helps when atoms have to many protons and not enough neutrons
electron decay
mass number stays the same , the new neutron cnacels out the proton

the atomic number goes down by one

half live
the amount of time for half of a radioactive sample to decay
Goal of radiation?
for atoms to become stable
The splitting of an atom into many pieces, few atoms naturally do this (U-235 does)
the combination of two lighter atoms into a larger one
Valence electrons
the outermost electrons (s and p) of an atom
moderators slow down the reaction- moderates neutrons, inserted into the reactor core
Control rods
Used to control the fission rate and are capable at absorbing many neutrons without themselves fissioning
refers to the penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radiation source
effective nuclear charge
net positive charge experienced by an electron
effective nuclear charge Trend: Across a period
effective nuclear charge Trend: Across a period (WHY)
Increase bc while the atomic number is increasing while the inner core electrons are constant
– the shielding effect is constant
the shielding effect
attraction between an electron and nucleus (as long as it has multiple shells)
effective nuclear charge Trend: down a group
effective nuclear charge Trend: down a group (WHY)
constant bc the atomic number and number of core electrons increases
how is effective nuclear charge related to atomic radius
The are inverses, so as effective nuclear charge increases, the atomic radius decreases (bc the valence electrons are drawn in closer due to the larger nuclear charge)
atomic radii Trend: Across a period
decreases from left to right
atomic radii Trend: down a group
increases down a group
atomic radii Trend: down a group (WHY)
as you move down more energy levels are added so then you get a bigger radius
Atomic radii trend:
Atomic radii trend:
Ionization energy:
Ionization energy is the amount of energy it takes for a valence electron to be removed
Ionization energy cause
due to the fact that a negatively charged electrons are attracted to a positive nucleus
Ionization energy recieves a sig. increase when removing from noble gases- Why?
Bc the noble gases have perfect outer energy shells which makes them hard to break
Ionization energy: down a group
Ionization energy: across a period
a measure of a tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons
Electronegativity: comparison
sharing of a pizza, unfair sharing (the bigger person eats more bc they can, if 2 people were sharing a pizza)
Electronegativity: down a group
decreases as we move down
Electronegativity: across a period
increases as you move right
periodic table: blocks
periodic table: blocks
Periodic table blocks
S,F,D, and P
Ionic Radii
when atoms lose electrons then they become more positive, Cations are always smaller than uncharged parent atoms
Iso electronic series
a series of elements that all have the same electron configuration
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry