Chemistry Chapter 24: Nuclear Chemistry

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Radioisotopes
Atoms that contain an unstable combination of neutrons and protons.
Radioactive Decay
Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and other particles
Nucleon
Protons + Nuetrons
Positron Emission
Radioactive decay that involves the emission of a positron.
-Proton is converted to neutron and a positron
Positron
A particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge.
Electron Capture
When the nucleus of an atom draws in a surrounding electron (lowest level).
-Electron combines with a proton to form a neutron
-Results in an emission of an X-ray photon
Nuclear Fission
The splitting of a nucleus into fragment.
-Mass # > 60
-Increases stability
-Chain reactions can occur
Nuclear Fusion
The combining of atomic nuclei.
-High temperatures (thermonuclear reactions)
Alpha
-Reduces protons
-Reduces neutrons
-Proton-neutron ratio is constant
Beta
-Decreases the neutrons
-Lowers the proton-neutron ratio
-Increases stability
Gamma
type of radioactivity in which an unstable atomic nucleus dissipates energy by gamma emission, producing gamma rays.
Mass Defect
The mass of a nucleus is less than the mass of the nucleons.
-Missing mass is converted to energy that holds the nucleus together
Half-Life
A substance which undergoes exponential decay decays by the same ratio in equal intervals of time.
Radioisotope Tracer
To explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Transuranium Elements
Elements that come after Uranium #>93
1895 William Roentgen
Found that certain materials emit invisible rays when bombarded with electrons. “X-Rays”
1895 Henri Becquerel
Studying phosphorescent, he found that Uranium emits rays even when not exposed to sun rays.
Marie and Perrie
Discovered darkening of the photographic plates was due to rays emitted from from the Uranium atoms themselves.
Called it “radioactivity”
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry