Chemistry Exam IV-Unit 10 Nuclear Chemistry

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2 Types of Nuclear Reactions
1. Radioactive Decay
2. Nuclear Bombardment (Particle Accelerator)
Proton Particle
∆Z=-1, ∆A=-1
Neutron Particle
∆Z=0, ∆A=-1
Beta Particle
∆Z=+1, ∆A=0
Positron (+ electron)
∆Z=-1, ∆A=0
Alpha Particle
∆Z=-2, ∆A=-4
Gamma Particle
∆Z=0, ∆A=0
∆Z=-1, ∆A=-2
∆Z=-1, ∆A=-3
Predict Stability-Magic Numbers
Predict Stability-Even # Protons
Predict Stability-Odd # Protons
Predict Stability- Even # Neutrons
Predict Stability- Odd # Neutrons
Atomic #<20
Atomic #>20
=ratio >1
Predict Stability-Atomic #>83
Type of Decay-Atomic #>83
Alpha Decay
Type of Decay- N/P ratio is too large
Beta Emission
Beta Emission
Neutron converted to a Proton
Type of Decay-N/P ratio is too small
Positron emission or Electron capture
Positron Emission
(Given Off) Change proton to a neutron
Electron Capture
(Absorbed) electron to change a proton to a neutron
Transuranium Elements
Elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium (92), which is the naturally occurring element of greatest atomic #.
Combining of light nuclei to obtain a heavier, more stable nucleus, and energy is released.
Splitting of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and energy is released.
Geiger/Ionization Counter
Detection instrument that counts radioactive particles emitted.
Scintillation Counter
Detection device that detects nuclear radiation from flashes of light generated in a material by the radiation.
Measurement of Activity
#dis nuclei/time
Rate of Decay
Activity (#dis nuclei/time)=k*#of nuclei
Half Life
Radioactive Decay Equation
Energetics of Nuclear Reactions
E=mc² where m= ∆mass and c= speed of light.
Mass Defects
≡∆mass of entire element vs individual components.
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry