Chemistry – Nuclear Chemistry Vocab

Published by admin on

alpha particle
a positively charged particle that is the nucleus of the helium atom
beta particle
a high-speed electron or positron emitted in the decay of a radioactive isotope
chain reaction
a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one is a reactant in the next
control rod
a steel or aluminum rod that can be moved up or down to control the rate of the nuclear reaction
critical mass
the minimum mass of fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
decay series
sequence of steps by which a radioactive nucleus decays into a nonradioactive nucleus
electron capture
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom
gamma ray
electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength
time it takes for half of a sample to decay
mass defect
the amount by which the mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent particles
nuclear fission
a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
nuclear fusion
a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
nuclear reaction
a reaction that involves a change in the nucleus of an atom
a constituent (proton or neutron) of an atomic nucleus
an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron
radioactive decay
the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation
radioactive dating
measurement of the amount of radioactive material (usually carbon 14) that an object contains
(Roentgen Equivalent Man) the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same amount of injury to human tissue as 1 roentgen of X-rays
radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation exposure from nuclear reactors, especially gamma rays
transuranium element
a synthetic element whose an atomic number is greater than that of uranium (atomic number 92)
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry