Isotopes and nuclear chemistry

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Nuclear Reaction
A reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
The transformation of atoms of one element into atoms of a different element as a result of a nuclear reaction
Nuclear radiation
The particles that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay, such as neutrons, electrons, and protons
Alpha particle
A positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
Beta particle
A charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay, such as beta decay
Gamma ray
The high – energy proton emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay
Electromagnetic radiation
The radiation associated with an electric and magnetic field ; it varies periodically and travels at the speed of light
Nuclear fusion
The splitting of the nucleus of a large atom into two or more fragments ; releases additional neutrons and energy
Nuclear fission
The combination of the nuclei of small atoms to form a larger nucleus; releases energy
Chain reaction
A continuous series of nuclear fission reactions
Critical mass
The minimum mass of a fissionable isotope that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
Control rod
A neutron-absorbing rod that helps control a nuclear reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
What defines each of the hydrogen isotopes as a hydrogen atom?
The number of protons
What part of the atom is changing in the isotopes?
What does the periodic table contain?
Weighted averages of all the isotopes that exist in nature
Is the unit for average atomic mass
One amu is about the same mass as a
Proton or neutron
Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers
The atoms are of the same element because they have different number of
mass #-atomic#
How are most elements found in nature
Most elements are found as a mixture of isotopes
The relative abundance of each isotope is
Does the number of neutrons affect the behavior of the element?
No because they have no charge
Isotope : same number of protons ( atomic number
same number of protons (atomic number) with different number of neutrons (mass number)
Mass number =
Protons (atomic #) + neutrons
Nuclear reaction characteristics:
1.involves the nucleus
2. New elements are formed
3. Nuclei emit particles and/or energy
4. LARGE energy changes
5. Reaction rate is not changed; always the same rate
An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation to become more stable
Loss of an alpha particle from a nucleus will result in:
-mass number decreases by 4
– atomic number decreases by 2
Loss of a beta particle from a nucleus will result in:
– mass number stays the same
-atomic number increases by 1
Loss of gamma energy
Does not change an isotopes mass number or atomic number
Nuclei of atoms split and release neutrons, reaction releases energy, used in nuclear reactors and atomic bombs
2 nuclei are fused together, only happens under really hot conditions like in the sun, fueled by the fusion of hydrogen to produce helium
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry