Nuclear Chemistry

Published by admin on

+2 charge
Alpha
0 charge
Gamma
+1 charge
Positron
-1
Beta
Helium nucleus
Alpha
Compared to xrays
Gamma
Blocked by cement (lead)
Gamma
Blocked by paper
Alpha
Blocked by foil
Beta
High energy electrons
Beta
mf=mi(1/2)^n
Half life equation
mf
final mass
mi
initial mass
n
number of half lives
t-small
elapsed time
T-big
duration of half life
Mass Defect
the difference between the mass of an atom AND the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
Nuclear Binding Energy
the energy that is released when a nucleus is formed
234 in protactinium-234
mass number
Fission
splitting a nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei
Chain Reaction
self propagating reaction
Fusion
combining of two nuclei to form one nucleus of large mass
Thermonuclear Reaction
required temperature of 40,000,000K to sustain
occurs naturally in stars
U is limited, makes 3 tons of coal, danger of meltdown, toxic waste, thermal pollution
Fission reactor problems
20 tons of coal, fuel is abundant, no danger of meltdown, no toxic waste, not yet sustainable
Fusion reactor problems
A Hydrogen bomb has _________ power than an atomic bomb
more
A ________ particle is just like an electron
Beta
A ________ particle is just a positive electron
Positron
This particle has no mass and does not effect equations
Gamma
A long half life means the nucleus of an atom is _________
Stable
A short half life means the nucleus of an atom is __________
not Stable
Transmutation
the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element. ALL nuclear reactions except those involving only gamma emissions are transmutation reactions
Induced Transmutation
the process of striking nuclei with high-velocity charged particles. Particle accelerators, or atom smashers, are used to accelerate the particles to the extremely high speeds
Transuranium Elements
elements that come after uranium on the periodic table. All been produced in a lab
Emission means that the nuclear partice (beta, Gamma, alpha, ect) will go on the ______ side of the yields, being added to something else
right
Only _______ _____ goes on the LEFT of the yield sign.
Electron capture
Nuclear Reaction
a reaction that changes the nucleus of an atom
Isotopes
atoms of the same element with the same number of protons, ut a different number of neutrons
In _______ reactions, atoms are unchanged, thought they may be rearranged. Also, these reactions are influenced by pressure, temperature, concentration, and catalyst.
Chemical Reactions
Penetrating Power
the ability of radiation to pass through matter
The primary factor in determining an atom’s stability is
the ratio of neutrons to protons
These reactions involve ONLY valence electrons
Chemical Reactions
Nuclear Reactions
have large energy changes, and the reaction rate is NOT affected by pressure, temperature, concentration, and catalyst
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry