Nuclear Chemistry/Physics Study Guide: Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry

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is the process in which an unstable atomic nuclus emits charged particles and energy
an atom containing an unstable nucleus
nuclear radiation
is charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of raidioisotopes
alpha particle
is a positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
beta particle
an electorn emitted by an unstable nulceus
gamma ray
is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
background radiation
nuclear radiation that occurs naturaly in the enviorment
Geiger counter
uses a gas filled tube to measure lonizing radiation
is the time required for one half oa a sample of a radioisotope to decay
radioactive dating and radiocarbon dating
the age of an object is determined by comparing the object’s carbo 14 levels with carbon-14 levels in the atmosphere
strong nuclear force
the attravive force that binds protons and neutrons toghther in the nucleus – only works in short distances
fission vs. fusion
the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller parts vs. a process in which nuclei of tow atoms combine to form a large nucleus
Albert Einstein’s mass-energy equation
E= mc^2 – important because the energy in the reactants of nuclear reaction must equal the energy in the products
nuclear chain reaction
neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus have a series of nuclear fissions
critical mass
the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction – must release enough neutrons to make it go for as long as you want it to
adding a radioactive isotope to a substance
radioactive tracer
is short lived radiation that can be used in agriculture and medicine
unit of measurement for measuring radiation in the human body
occurs when atoms gain or lose electrons
unstable nucleus is caused by…
too many or too few neutrons
radioactive decay
unstable nucleus emits particles and/or energy trying to stabilize
alpha decay – what happens to mass # & atomic #
changes both (atomic mass by 4 & atomic number by 2)
beta decay – what happens to mass # and atomic #
mass number stays same and atomic number changes by 1
gamma radiation – what happens to mass # and atomic #
NOTHING but energy of nucleus changes
alpha decay – energy level – what stops it
low energy – paper
beta decay – energy level – what stops it
medium level – aluminum
gamma decay – energy level – what stops it
fairly high – goes through humans – needs 7 cm of Pb
neutron emission – energy level – what stops it
HIGHEST – needs at least 15 cm of Pb
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry