Nuclear Chemistry Study Guide

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What is nuclear chemistry?
The study of the nucleus of the atom and its reactions
What is nuclear radiation?
Particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
What is a nuclide?
The nucleus of an atom
Which part of the atom does the nuclide exclude?
The nucleus
What are nucleons?
Components of the nuclide, protons and neutrons
What are Isotopes?
Two or more forms of the same element with the same atomic number but different atomic mass
What is the relative mass of protons, neutrons, and electrons?
Proton = 1
Neutron = 1
Electron = 0
Define nuclear binding energy and describe its trend.
The very small amount of energy that is released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons. Its Trend is: as the nucleus increases in size and number of nucleons , the nuclear binding energy increases until it gets up to Iron (Fe). After it reaches Iron (Fe), the binding energy decreases.
Which number of nucleons is more stable in a nuclide: Even or Odd?
Even
What is Radioactive Decay?
Spontaneous disintegration (falling apart) of a nucleus into a smaller and lighter nucleus (AMU) by emitting or releasing particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both.
What is transmutation?
Changing the atomic number which changes the element
Describe Alpha Particle Emission? What particle is emitted?
Emission of 2 protons and 2 neutrons; this causes the atomic mass to decrease by 4 and the atomic number to decrease by 2 (The Alpha Particle is emitted).
Describe Beta Emission. What particle is emitted?
The neutron is converted into a proton and electron; the electron is emitted from the nucleus. (Beta Particle is emitted)
Describe Gamma Emission. What particle is emitted?
High energy electromagnetic radiation is emitted as the nucleus goes from excited stated to ground state; gamma radiation is released (High Energy, but no mass)
Which type of Radioactive Decay is the most penetrating form and has the most energy?
Gamma
Which type of Radioactive Decay is shielded by paper?
Alpha
Which type of Radioactive Decay is shielded by aluminum?
Beta
Which type of Radioactive Decay is shielded by several levels of lead?
Gamma
What happens when the atomic number of an element changes?
If the atomic number changes, the element changes.
Define Half-Life
The amount of time for half of the radioactive material in a sample to decay.
Alpha Particle
Causes the Atomic Mass to decrease by 4 and the Atomic Number to decrease by 2
Artificial Transmutation
The changing of a nucleus artificially
Beta Particle
Emitted by radioactive decay of substances
Daughter Nuclide
The remaining Nuclide left over from radioactive decay
Decay Series
A radioactive element is decomposed into different elements until it produces a stable atom
Electron Capture
The transformation of an tamo
Gamma Ray
Half-Life
Magic Number
Mass Defect
Nuclear Binding Energy
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear Power Plant
Nuclear Radiation
Nuclear Reaction
Nuclear Reactor
Nuclear Shell Model
Nucleon
Nuclide
Parent Nuclide
Radioactive Decay
Radioactive Nuclide
Transmutation
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry