Physical Science Chapter 10: Nuclear Chemistry

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Radioactivity
The process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy
Nuclear Radiation
Charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of radioisotopes
Alpha Particle
A positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
Beta Particle
An electron emitted by an unstable nucleus
Gamma Ray
A penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus.
Background Radiation
Nuclear radiation that occurs naturally in the environment
Half-Life
The time required for one half of a sample of a radioisotope to decay
Strong Nuclear Force
The attractive force that binds protons and neurons together in a nucleus
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus into two smaller parts
Chain Reaction
When neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus triggers a series of nuclear fissions
Critical Mass
The smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
Fusion
A process in which the nuclei of two atoms combine to form a larger nucleus
Neutron emmision
Matter that is emitted from an unstable nucleus
Radioactive tracer
A radioactive material that is added to a substance so that it’s distribution can be detected later
Nuclear Decay
Th e unstable nuclei of these isotopes emit particles, or release energy to become stable isotopes
Mass defect
Difference between mass of isotope and muss number
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry