thermo-nuclear chemistry

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the study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
the SI unit of heat and energy
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
heat of reaction
the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during a chemical reaction
thermochemical equation
an equation that includes the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during the reaction as written
enthalpy change
the amount of energy absorbed by a system as heat during a process at constant pressure
molar heat of formation
the heat released or absorbed when one mole of a compound is formed by the combination of its elements
heat of combustion
the energy released as heat by the complete combustion of one mole of a substance
Hess’s Law
the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process
mass defect
the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
nuclear binding energy
energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
protons and neutrons
another term for isotope
when you change from one element to another due to radioactivity
alpha particles
positively charged particles with about four times the mass of a hydrogen atom
artificial transmutation
bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles
beta particle
an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
daughter nuclides
nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclide
decay series
series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached
gamma rays
high-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state
half life
the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products
nuclear radiation
particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
a particle that has the same mass as an electron, but has a positive charge, and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
transuranium elements
the elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers above 92, which all undergo transmutation
radioactive dating
technique in which scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains
radioactive tracers
radioactive atoms that are incorporated into substances so that movement of the substances can be followed by radiation detectors.
(Roentgen Equivalent Man) the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same amount of injury to human tissue as 1 roentgen of X-rays
chain reaction
a reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction
control rods
neutron-absorbing rods that help control the reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
critical mass
the minimum amount of nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
nuclear fission
nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry