Unit 14 vocabulary- nuclear chemistry

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Alpha particle
A particle with two protons and two neutrons, with a 2+ charge; is equivelant to a helium -4 nucleus, can be represented by “a”; emmited during radioactive decay
Alpha radiation
Radiation that is made up of alpha particles; is deflected toward a negatively charged plate when radiation from a radioactive source is directed between two electrically charged plates.
Bela particle
A high speed electron with a 1-charge that is emitted during radioactive decay.
Beta radiation
Radiation that is made up of beta particles; is deflected toward a positively charged plate when radiation from a radioactive source is directed between two electrically charged plates.
Gamma rays
High energy radiation that has no electrical charge and no mass, is not deflected by electric or magnetic fields, usually accompanies alpha and beta radiation and accounts for most of energy lost during radioactive decay
Half-life
The time required for one-half of a radioisotopes nuclei to decay into its products.
Ionizing radiation
Radiation that is energetic enough to ionize matter it collides with.
Nuclear fission
The splitting of a nucleus into smaller, more stable fragments, accompanied by a large release of energy.
Nuclear fussion
The process of binding smaller atomic nuclei into a single, larger and more stable nucleus.
Nucleon
The positively charged protons and neutral neutrons contained in an atom’s nucleus.
Positron
A particle that has the same mass as an electron but an opposite charge.
Positron emission
A radioactive decay process in which a proton in the nucleus is converted into a neutron and a positron and then a positron is emitted from the nucleus.
Radiation
The Rays and particles— alpha and beta particles and gamma rays—they are emitted by radioactive waves.
Radioactive decay
A spontaneous process in which unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation.
Radioactive decay series
A series of nuclear reactions that starts with an unstable nucleus and results in the formation of a stable nucleus.
Radioactivity
The process in which some substances spontaneously emit radiation.
Radioisotopes
Isotopes of atoms that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation to attain more stable atomic configurations.
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry