Unit 2 Nuclear Chemistry

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radioactive decay
the spontaneous transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and other particles
nuclide
refers to the nucleus of a radioactive isotope
radioisotope
a radioactive isotope
radioactivity
the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei
alpha particle
a particle composed of two protons and two neutrons that is emitted by the radioactive decay of some substances
beta particle
a fast-moving electron emitted by the radioactive decay of some substances
gamma ray
a stream of high-energy photons of electromagnetic radiation emitted from a radioactive nucleus
transmutation
the changing of one element into another by radioactive decay, nuclear bombardment, or similar processes
induced transmutation
nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particles or small nuclei
transuranium elements
the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, which are unstable and decay radioactively into other elements
fission
the splitting of a heavy, unstable nucleus into nuclei of lighter atoms
chain reaction
the self-sustaining fission reaction spread by neutrons that occurs in nuclear reactors and bombs
fusion
the combining of light, unstable nuclei into a heavier, more stable nucleus
half-life
the time required for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to decrease to half its original value
radioactive or radiochemical dating
a method of determining the age of earth materials or organic objects based on the measurements of radioactive elements and decay products
positron
a subatomic particle with the same mass as an electron and a numerically equal but positive charge
positron emission
a type of radioactive decay in which a positron and an electron neutrino are released
alpha decay
a type of radioactive decay in which an alpha particle is released; results in the formation of a new element and may be accompanied by gamma radiation
beta decay
a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle is released; results in the formation of a new element and may be accompanied by gamma radiation
synthetic elements
the chemical elements that do not occur naturally on Earth and can only be created artificially; elements with atomic numbers 95 through 118
gamma emission
a type of radioactivity in which an unstable atomic nucleus dissipates energy by producing gamma rays
radiation
a stream of particles or electromagnetic waves that is emitted by the atomic nuclei of radioactive substances as a result of nuclear decay
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry