Unit 3-part 2: Nuclear Chemistry

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electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
high energy particles with no mass given off by different objects
“packet” of energy that moves through space, all types of EMR fall into one of these “packets”
electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)
entire range of possible energies given off my EMR
Non-ionizing radiation
low energy radiation, not harmful to humans, from visible and to the left on the EMS
ionizing radiation
all nuclear radiation such as alpha, beta, and gamma, and other high energy EMR radiation, including UV rays, X-rays and Gamma rays. The last three spots on the EMS
atoms with unstable nuclei, which change spontaneously into nuclei of different atoms
radioactive decay
process through which atoms change into atoms of different elements
nuclear radiation
emitted particles and energy from radioactive decay
W. K. Roentgen
used cathode ray tube to shoot electrons through uranium, found X-rays
Henri Becquerel
discovered radioactivity by placing uranium in a drawer with film, and observing how the radiation spoiled the film
marie and pierre curie
studied uranium ore, also found radium and polonium, died from radiation sickness
Albert Einstein
theory of special relativity, 1905. Nucleus of an atom holds great power, if it could be tapped and harnessed.
Ernest Rutherford
radioactivity includes 2 different types of rays, Alpha and Beta. A third, Gamma, was later discovered
Enrico Fermi
considered “the architect of the Nuclear Age” researched nuclear fission, which led to the atomic bomb
Lise Meitner
considered the “mother of the atomic bomb” also researched nuclear fission, leading the atomic bomb
Otto Hahn
another scientist who researched nuclear fission, leading to the atomic bomb
Otto Frisch
also researched nuclear fission, leading to the atomic bomb.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
led the manhattan project, which developed the first atomic bombs
alpha particles
positively charged particles, has 2P and 2N, written as 4/2 a or 4/2 He. given off in alpha decay. positively charged, can cause damage to human skin, but only over short distances. dangerous if ingested.
beta particles
negatively charged particles, fast moving electrons, though emitted from a nucleus. Written as 0/-1 B. Travel at high speeds, can penetrate human skin, but not harmful because too small.
gamma rays
neutral particles, High energy particle that has no mass or charge, it is just pure energy! written as 0/0 y. Can travel long distances and are very harmful. given off in gamma decay
3, 1/5
the average element has ____ isotopes, and _______ of all isotopes are radioactive
background radiation
low energy radiation that is all around us in low, not harmful quantities, emitted by naturally occurring radio-isotopes
positron emission
antimatter equivalent of an electron. has the same mass but an opposite charge. Written as 0/1 e or 0/1 B
nuclear tranmutation
conversion of the nucleus of one element to that of another by bombardment of a particle, leading to a new element and/or particle (s). (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Neutron)
*Ernest Rutherford was the first to observe this*
Irene Curie and Frederick Joliot
other scientists who is 1933 observed nuclear transmutation between aluminum and phosphorus.
particle accelerators
machines used to speed up particles, then to bombard them with other particles, to cause a reaction
transuranium elements
elements produced artificially, beginning with 93, Neptunium and on.
Radioactive half life
time required for half of the original sample of a radioactive nucleus to decay.
Log equation for calculating half-life
t=3.32 (t1/2) (log Mass original/Mass remaining)
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry