Unit 4: Nuclear Chemistry

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nuclear chemistry
a branch of science that deals with the structure of and changes in the atomic nucleus
alpha emission
helium nucleus (2 protons and 2 neutrons), which is often released from a large atom
beta emission
a high-speed electron or positron emitted from the nucleus
gamma emission
electromagnetic waves emitted from the nucleus
the time needed for half of a sample of radioactive material to decay
radioactive decay
the decay of an unstable nucleus (too many protons, not enough neutrons) followed by the release of radiation
atom of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
radioactive dating
the process of determining the age of an object using the principles of radioactive decay
nuclear fission
the process whereby a heavy nucleus splits into two intermediate-sized nuclei, with the emission of neutrons and conversion of mass into energy that is released
nuclear fusion
the process whereby smaller nuclei fuse to form larger ones, with mass converted into energy that is released
Parent isotope
the isotope that undergoes radioactive decay
Daughter isotope
the stable isotope produced by the radioactive decay of the parent isotope
Isotopic Notation
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons., notation that shows the chemical symbol, atomic number, and mass number for an isotope of an element
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
Mass Number
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Atomic Notation
A symbolic method for expressing the composition of an atomic nucleus; the mass number and atomic number are indicated to the left of the chemical symbol for the element
Nuclear Notation
The type of notation where you write the average mass over the atomic number followed by the symbol
Is the transfer of energy thourgh space by visible light, UV radiation, and othr electromagnetic waves.
beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a particular type of radioactive decay , in which a proton inside a radioactive nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino.
Artifical Transmutation
There are two reactants or the nucleus that is being bombarded and the high-energy particle.
Natural Transmutation
some elements release radioactive particles on their own and change into other elements. The radioactive element is the only reactant
Nuclear Power
Energy that is harnessed from reactions among radioactive isotopes
Process by which certain unstable atoms or elements undergo spontaneous decay, in an effort to attain a more stable nuclear state
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry