Unit 9 Nuclear Chemistry

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Radiation
Energy that’s all around us.
NonNuclear Chemistry
Chemical reactions that exchange, share, and transfer electrons. Identity of the atom does not change.
Ionic Bonding
Exchanging of electron
Covalent Bonding
Sharing of Electrons
Metallic Bonding
Continual transfer of electrons
Nuclear Chemistry
Changing the structure of the nucleus of an atom.
*Identity of the atom changes
* Involves a large change in energy
Henri B
Found certain materials emitted x-rays when exposed.
Phosphoresence
Producing it’s own light when exposed.
Radioactivity
Process by which materials give off radiation rays.
Radiation
Rays and particles emitted by radioactive materials.
Isoptopes
Atoms with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons.
Radio Isotopes
Isotopes that are unstable.
*Emits radiation when stable structures are attained through radioactive decay.
Radioactive Decay
Process of attaining more stable structures through decomposing.
*Emits radiation
*Loses Energy
Ionizing Power
Ability to cause an atom to ionize
Penetrating Power
Ability to penetrate matter
Alpha Particle
Goes through alpha decay to emit alpha particles.
*Particle with 2p+ and 2n0 and 0e- = He
* Slow moving particle
* Very low energy
* High Ionizing Power
* Low Penetration Power
*Can be blocked by a single sheet of paper
Beta Radiation
Goes through Beta decay to emit beta particle
* Low ionizing power
*Mass of 0
*Charge of -1
* Medium penetration power
* Fast moving e-
*Emitted when n0 in and unstable nucleus converts to p+
Gamma Radiation
Goes through gamma decay to emit gamma particle, and releases high energy radiation

* Photons with a very high energy
* Almost always accompanied with alpha or beta
* Has 0 mass, so atomic structure doesn’t change
*Mainly found in space
* No ionizing power
* Very high penetrating power
*Not completely blocked by lead or cement

Half Life
Time it takes for half the parent nuclides to decay into daughter nuclides.
Parent Nuclide
Radioisotope(the initial or original)
Daughter Nuclide
Atom formed after parent nuclide goes through radioactive decay.
Strong Nuclear Forces
Forces that hold nucleons together. Strongest forces of nature.
Transmutation
Conversion of an element into another element by changing the nucleus of the atom. This can be forced even if it is a spontaneous happening.
Induced Transmutation
process in striking the nuclei with high velocity particles to force transmutation.
*Causes to become unstable, and decay
* Form radioactive isotopes
Nuclear Fission
Process of splitting the nucleus into fragments.
*Delivers a large release of energy
*Commonly uses 235 U
*Used in powerplants to create electricity
Nuclear Fusion
Process of smashing lighter unstable atoms together to fuse them into one atom.
* Delivers large amount of energy
*Process is observed in the sun
* Reactants are small radioactive elements
*Products are large non-radioactive elements
Why don’t we use Nuclear Fusion?
1) It’s to hard to control
2) Create to much heat energy
3) It would cause explosions
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry