Unit Three: Atoms, Moles, and Nuclear Chemistry

Published by admin on

nuclear fission
occurs when one atom’s nucleus splits
the smallest component of an element, consisting of a nucleus containing neutrons and protons and one or more electrons
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a given element
average atomic mass
average mass per atom of an element
particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter, having a negative charge
two or more forms of an element, having the same number of protons, but having different numbers of neutrons
mass number
the integer nearest in value to the atomic weight of an atom
within an atom, containing protons and neutrons
a neutrally charged particle of matter, found in nucleus
a positively charged particle of matter, found in nucleus
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular weights
molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
a unit of counting, one mole = 6.02 x 10^23 particles, atoms, ect.
alpha radiation
-Made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
-+2 charge
-Helium nucleus
-Stopped by paper
-2nd leading cause of lung cancer
-Used in smoke
beta radiation
-High speed electron
-Charge of -1
-No mass
-Stopped by plastic, thin sheet of metal, or wood
-Used in PET scans
gamma rays
-Most penetrating and dangerous form of
-Can damage human skin, DNA and
-Some can be stopped by lead or concrete
-Used to kill cancerous cells
-Pure energy
half life
the time required for one-half of a radioisotope’s nuclei to decay into its products
nuclear decay
when an element has an unstable isotope, it becomes radioactive
nuclear fusion
occurs when two or more atoms nuclei come together to form one atom
change of an atom of one element to another element through nuclear reactions
Categories: Nuclear Chemistry