Biology Chapter 3: Organic Chemistry

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2 Broad Categories
How many categories are compounds divided into?
Organic and Inorganic Compounds
The two categories of compounds into these.
This compound contains carbon atoms that are covalent my bonded to carbon and to other elements.
Living Things
An organic compound is a compound that contains carbon and is found in all of these.
The Chemistry of Life
The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of what?
This is the chemistry of living organisms.
This is present in all organisms.
Carbon has this amount of electrons in their outer energy levels and can form this amount of covalent bonds.
Single Chains, Branched Chains, Ring Chains
Carbon can take in these different structures
Functional Group
This is a cluster of atoms that can influence the characteristics/ behavior of a larger molecule.
This is a single molecular unit.
A long chain of linked monomers.
A chain of polymers bonded together to form a very large molecule.
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Examples of Macromolecules
Condensation Reaction
The chemical reaction that takes place to bind monomers together to make polymers and macromolecules. Water is released in this process.
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction
Another name for Condensation Reaction.
Hydrolysis Reaction
A chemical reaction that breaks polymers and macromolecules apart. The reverse of a condensation reaction.
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
4 Main classes of organic compounds that are essential to the life processes of all living things.
An organic compound made ups of Carbon,Hydrogen ,Oxygen.
Monomers/ subunits of Carbohydrates.
This means sugar.
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
The most common monosaccharides.
Blood Sugar. Main source of energy for the cells.
Fruit sugar. The sweetest monosaccharide.
Found in milk. Is usually combined with glucose and fructose.
Compounds with same chemical formula but have different forms.
Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen
Three most important polysaccharides.
A storage macromolecule of repeating units of glucose in plants.
A storage molecule of repeating units of glucose in animals. A polymer of glucose monomers.
Main storage of glucose in animals.
Liver and muscle
Where glycogen is stored in animals.
A macromolecule that adds structure to cell walls of plant cells.
Not fully digested by humans but is very rigid and strong.
Digestive system
Cellulose cannot be broken down by human enzymes so it passes through this system without being absorbed.
An important polysacharide . A polymer of glucose with an attached functional group found in the exoskeleton of Arthropods.
Energy Storage
What is a carbohydrate’s function?
Quick Energy
Simple sugars (monosacharides) can give this.
Sustained Energy
Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) can give this.
Benedict’s Solution
An indicator of monosacharides.
Yellow, gold, orange, reddish-orange
If monosacharides are present when mixed with Benedict’s Solution, these colors will appear.
Lugol’s Iodine
This is an indicator of Starch.
If starch is present when mixed with Lugol’s Iodine, this color will appear.
Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Amino Group, Carboxyl Group, R group
Three main parts of an amino acid
Amino Acid
The subunit of a protein.
There are this many different amino acids essential to living things.
Proteins vary in this.
R groups
The difference of this group in amino acids will give proteins different shapes.
This will determine a protein’s function.
There are this many non essential amino acids made by the body.
There are this many essential amino acids not made by the body and must be obtained by food.
Protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen in the blood
Protein that carries oxygen in muscle tissues.
Structural protein that makes up hair, nails, horns and hooves.
Structural protein that makes up the elasticity of the skin.
Structural proteins that make up protein fibers.
Protein hormone that stimulates cells to absorb glucose.
Proteins that act as biological catalysts to lower activation energy and speed up chemical reactions.
Specific, reusable, sensitive to their environment.
Enzymes are……
Enzymes end in…..
Structural Components and enzymes
Enzymes function mainly as…….
Biuret reagent
When testing for proteins, this is an indicator for proteins and will turn PURPLE if proteins are present.
Energy storage and formation of cell membranes
Large, non polar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water and are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Monomers of lipids.
Energy storage, insulation and protection.
Lipids function as long term…..
Three fatty acids and glycerol make
Fatty acids and glycerol make…..
Oil, water
Lipids are soluble in this and insoluble in this.
Saturated Fats
These are solid at room temperature, have no carbon double bonds, and are unhealthy fats.
Unsaturated Fats
These are liquid at room temperature, have at least one carbon to carbon double bond and are healthy fats. Primarily found in seeds and fits.
These have 2 fatty acids joined by a molecules of glycerol and the cell membrane is composed of two of these.
Stable and effective
The bilayer arrangement of molecules produce a barrier for a the cell that is……..
These prevent water loss.
Steroid Hormones
These are made up of 4 rings of carbon, this is the chemical messenger that serves in various functions in living things.
Brown Paper Test
This is an indicator of lipids.
Nucleic Acids
Large and complex organic molecules that store important information in the cell.
Monomers of nucleic acids.
Sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
Nucleotides are made of these.
Examples of Nucleic Acids
Categories: Organic Chemistry