Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry
Animals, vegetables, living things- any compound that is carbon based
Properties of Organic Compounds
non polar, low melting points and boiling points, not soluble in water, less dense than water, highly flammable
Formula for Alkanes
Formula for Cycloalkanes
Shape of Ethane, C2H6
Prefix for alkane with 1 carbon atom
Prefix for alkane with 2 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 3 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 4 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 5 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 6 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 7 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 8 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 9 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 10 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 11 carbon atoms
Prefix for alkane with 12 carbon atoms
When two compounds have the same molecular formula, but differ in the order in which the atoms are bonded
carbon branches and are named by replacing the -ane with -yl
Alkyl group for Methane
Alkyl group for Ethane
Alkyl group for Propane
Halogen atoms attached to the carbon chain named fluoro (-F), chloro (-Cl), bromo (-Br), or iodo (-I)
Halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms
Alkanes are gases when there are how many carbon atoms?
1-4 carbon atoms
Alkanes are liquids when there are how many carbon atoms?
5-8 carbon atoms
Alkanes are solids when there are how many carbon atoms?
9-17 carbon atoms
Are Alkanes nonpolar/polar?
Are Alkanes soluble or insoluble in water?
Are Alkanes less or more dense than water?
Less dense so alkanes will float in water
Do Alkanes have high or low melting and boiling points?
Low melting and boiling points, the shorter the carbon chain the lower the melting and boiling point also the more branches the lower the melting and boiling point
Do cycloalkanes have high or low melting and boiling points?
Higher boiling points than straight chain alkanes
Formula for Combustion of Alkanes
Alkane + O2 ——-> CO2 + H2O + Energy
Contain a double bond
Contain a triple bond
Contain a benzene ring (cyclohexane with a circle in the middle)
Contains the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group
Contains the functional group (-SH)
an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms (-C-O-C-)
Contains a carbonyl group (C=O) and attached to at least one hydrogen atom
Contains a carbonyl group and is attached to two other carbon atoms
Contain the carboxyl group which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group
Contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms
The functional group is a nitrogen atom
The hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group
Shape of Alkenes
C2H4, Ethene’s common name
Shape of Alkynes
C2H2, Ethyne’s common name
Cis and Trans Isomers
Same formula, different physical and chemical properties and occur because double bonds are rigid and cannot rotate
Groups are attached on the same side of the double bond
Groups are attached on opposite sides of the double bond
Chemical messenger emitted by insects in tiny quantities
reactants add to the carbon atoms in double or triple bonds
Type of addition reaction where Hydrogen (H2) is added and a catalyst is used to speed up the reaction. The product is an Alkane.
Type of addition reaction where a halogen (Cl2, F2, Br2, I2, Al2) is added there is no catalyst and the product is a Haloalkane.
Type of addition reaction where a Hydrogen (H2) and a Halogen (Cl2, F2, Br2, I2, Al2) is added there is no catalyst and the product is a Haloalkane.
Type of addition reaction where water (H2O) or (H-OH) is added there is a acid catalyst and the product is a Alcohol
What happens to the color when bromine is added to an alkane?
The red color stays
What happens to the color when bromine is added to an alkene or an alkyne?
The red color of bromine disappears immediately
In asymmetrical alkenes, the H is added to the carbon in the double bond that has the greater number of H atoms
Where do the H and OH bonds go in a reaction for Hydration?
In hydration, the H atom bonds to the C that has more hydrogen atoms. The OH atom bonds to the C with the fewer number of hydrogen atoms.
large molecules that consist of small repeating units called monomers.
Small repeating units called monomers join to form a long chain polymer
PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
made from chloroethene
made from ethene (ethylene)
made from propene (propylene)
has 6 electrons shared equally among the 6 C atoms, behaves more like an alkane; it does not undergo addition reactions, it is represented as a hexagon with a circle drawn inside
Naming Aromatic Compounds
named with benzene as the parent chain with one side group named in front of benzene
What is Methylbenzene’s common name?
Toluene, has a CH3 branch coming off the benzene ring
What is Aminobenzene’s common name?
Aniline, has a NH2 branch coming off the benzene ring
What is Hydroxybenzene’s common name?
Phenol, has a OH branch coming off the benzene ring
Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 2 branches of the same common name
Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 3 branches of the same common name
Prefix for aromatic compound with 1, 4 branches of the same common name
What is Dimethylbenzene’s common name?
Boiling/melting point of aromatic compounds?
Have higher boiling/melting points
Are aromatic compounds soluble or insoluble in water?
Not soluble unless they contain OH OR COOH substituents
Are aromatic compounds flammable or not?
they are flammable