Organic Chemistry year 11

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What is a single bond called?
Are single bonds saturated or unsaturated?
Are double/triple bonds saturated or unsaturated?
What is a double bond called?
What is a triple bond called?
What is the formula for single bonds?
What is the formula for double bonds?
What is the formula for Triple bonds?
What reactions do alkanes have?
Combustion reactions
What is the formula for an alkane reaction?
alkane + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
What reactions do alkenes have?
Combustion and addition reactions
What does the addition of Hydrogen do to alkenes?
Makes them turn into alkanes
An example of a alkene addition reaction?
ethene + H2 = ethane
What does the addition of halogens do to alkenes?
ethene + bromine = 1,2 dibromo ethane
What reactions do alkyenes have?
combustion and addition reaction
What do you need in order for an addition reaction to occur for alkynes
needs 2 halogens
What is a monosaccharide?
A simple carbohydrate
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose (C6H12O6)
What is a disaccharide?
‘double carbohydrate’ 2 x monosaccharides
Through a condensation reaction
2C6H12O6 = (enzyme) C12H22O11 + H2O
What is a polysaccharide?
‘complex carbohydrate’ – lots of monosaccharides through a condensation reaction
Starch, Cellulose
nC6H12O6 = (enzyme) (C6H10O5)n + nH2O
What is the fermentation reaction equation?
Glucose ——-> (enzyme) ethanol + carbon dioxide
C6H12O6 ——–> 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2
What do alcohol classifications (primary, secondary, tertiary) mean?
It describes how many carbon atoms are attached to the hydroxyl bearing carbon
What is a carboxylic acid?
A weak acid that results in a sour taste, smells bad
What do carboxylic acids contain?
The carboxyil group (COOH)
What are carboxylic acids called?
—-oic acid
What is the first carbon in carboxylic acids?
The carbon in the carboxylic acid
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a base?
Makes a salt + water
What does a carboxylic acid do when it reacts to a alcohol?
Creates an ester
How is an ester formed?
With a reaction of an alcohol and a base to create the ester and water
How do you name a ester?
First word: —yl, comes from alcohol
Second word: — oate from carboxylic acid
Melting and boiling points in organic chemistry?
Have low melting and boiling points
Because organic molecules are held by intermolecular forces which are weak and are easy to break
The larger the molecule, the higher the melting and boiling point is
If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the boiling and melting points higher
Volatility in organic chemistry?
Have high volatility
Because have weaker bonds therefore easy to break
The larger the molecule, the lower the volatility
If an OH group is present there are hydrogen bonds, making the volatility lower
Solubility in organic chemistry?
The smaller the carbon chain the more soluble it is because dispersion forces are weaker
If there is an alcohol present more soluble because hydrogen bonds can be made easier
Oxidation of primary alcohols
Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm)
————————–> Aldehyde————————–> Carboxylic acid
Oxidation of secondary alcohols
Cr2O7 2-/ H (warm) ||
————————-> ketone (R-C-R)
Oxidation of Tertiary alcohols
No reaction
Categories: Organic Chemistry