Unit 10 – Organic Chemistry

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addition reaction
a chemical reaction in which one molecule is added to another
any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds
an aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbon such as a cycloalkane or cycloalkene
having carbon atoms linked in open chains
An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which two pairs of carbon atoms possess double bonds.
a non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2)
any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
alkyl group
any of a series of univalent groups of the general formula CnH2n+1 derived from aliphatic hydrocarbons
a colorless flammable gas used chiefly in welding and in organic synthesis
(chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings
this consists of a parent chain and a substituent
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
The formation of an ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, and the elimination of a molecule of water, in the presence of an acid catalyst..
a colorless volatile highly inflammable liquid formerly used as an inhalation anesthetic
fatty acid
any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
fractional distillation
fractionation of a liquid by distillation
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
homologous series
Series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH₂
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
the amount by which something increases
a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
IUPAC system
An organisation known as International union of pure and applied chemistry that determines the system for naming organic compounds.
any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
monohydroxy alcohol
An alcohol with only one hydroxyl group.
normal alkane
any alkane in which all the caron atoms are algiend in a continuous chain
any unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
Exercise is when the distal end of the moving segment moves freely
organic chemistry
the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)
paraffin series
another name for alkanes
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
primary alcohol
an alcohol that has one alkyl group bonded to the carbon atom with the -OH
a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)
saturated compound
An organic compound in which all the carbon atoms are joined by single bonds is called a(n) ________.
secondary alcohol
What type of alcohol is produced by the attachment of the hydroxyl group to a carbon atom that is joined directly to two other carbon atoms in the chain?
a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
structural formula
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule
substitution reaction
one atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom of group of atoms
tertiary alcohol
an alcohol that has three alkyl groups bonded to the carbon atom with the -OH
trihydroxy alcohol
An alcohol having three hydroxyl groups. Example: glycerol.
unsaturated compound
An organic compound with at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms is called a(n) ________.
Categories: Organic Chemistry