Astronomy Flashcards

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the study of the universe
a collection of star systems
Solar System
the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it in its gravitational field
Local Group
a group of about 30 galaxies that includes the Milky Way
Astronomical Unit
a unit of length used for distances within the solar system; equal to the mean distance between sun and earth
Light Year
the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year
a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil
Radioactive Zone
layer just outside the sun’s core, where energy is transported mostly in the form of radiation
Convection Zone
outermost layer of the sun’s interior
the intensely luminous surface of a star (especially the sun)
a gaseous layer of the sun’s atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun
the outermost region of the sun’s atmosphere
a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors
areas on the sun’s surface that are cooler and less bright than surrounding areas, are caused by the sun’s magnetic field, and occur in cycles
Solar Flare
a sudden eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun’s surface
Solar Wind
a stream of protons moving radially from the sun
an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles following the earth’s magnetic lines of force
Coronal Mass Ejection
large volumes of high energy gas released from the Sun’s corona
Solar Prominence
large eruptions of luminous hydrogen gas that rise thousands of kilometers above the chromosphere
Nuclear Fusion
a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
Electromagnetic Spectrum
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
Bing Bang Theory
a cosmological theory holding that the universe originated approximately 20 billion years ago from the violent explosion of a very small agglomeration of matter of extremely high density and temperature.
Doppler Red Shift
apparent shift in spectrum to the red end due to the movement of the light emitting object in space away from the observer
an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in interstellar space
Early form of a star; This stage lies between the collapsing of dust and gas and the beginning of nuclear fusion
Main Sequence
H fusion begins in core; forces balanced; star stable
Red Giant
a large cool star
Red Supergiant
H runs out, fusion of heavier elements begins (to iron); unstable and dying
Super Nova
massive explosion of unstable high mass star
White Dwarf
a faint star of enormous density
Neutron Star
a star that has collapsed under its own gravity
Black Hole
gravitational field so intense light cannot escape; end of a very massive star
Categories: Astronomy