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concerning the stars, the planets, or space
the scientific study of the sun, moon, stars, etc
the scientific study of the chemical nature of the stars and the natural forces that influence them
the art of understanding the supposed influence of the sun, moon, stars, and planets on events and on peoples character
The Scientific Method
requires that our ideas about nature are consistent with what we actually observed: Assume Laws of nature apply anywhere anytime and that nature works in simple ways
Step 1: Collect scientific data
making observations or measurements
Step 2: Form a hypothesis
an idea of collection of ideas to explain the data
A scientific Hypothesis Must contain what
Must be based off scientific data, must explain data completely( no conflicts with past or future), Must be testable( able to make verifiable predictions, able to be proven false)
Step 3: Testing the Hypothesis
Perform experiments to test predictions, measure new data
Scientific Theory or Model
If the Hypothesis is experimented and observed by different scientists and is supported by those results.
Science is NOT
A collection of independent bits of information(science uses information as one part of a larger process), Something that only can be done by highly trained individuals, Absolute proof, technology
Scientific notation
1 million= 10^6, billion= 10^9 etc, 1 millionth= 10^-6
Angles and how its measured
exact measure of the opening between two connecting straight lines, measured in degrees=360 or radian=2pie Rad
Pie = degress
180 degrees is pie
Astronomy angles for small angles
angles measured in degrees, 1 degree= 60arcmins= 60′

1’= 60 arcsecs= 60”

Architecture of the Universe: small scale
Elementary particles(Quarks, electrons), Composite Particles(protons, neutrons), Atomic Nuclei(chemical elements), Atoms and Ions, Molecules
Large Scale Structure of the Universe
Solar System, Solar Neighborhood, Galaxy(Milky Way), Galaxy Cluster/Group, Supercluster, Universe
Solar System
A system of astronomical objects including a planet, a star, asteroids, comets, etc
Distance Measurements: Light
Light travels 300,000 km/s
1 light second
equals the distance light travels in 1 second(300,000km)
1 light minute
the distance light travels in 1 min (1.8×10^7 km) aka 3 times 6 = 18 add zeros
1 light hour
the distance light travels in 1 hour (1.08×10^9)
Earth to moon
1.3 light seconds
earth to sun
8.3 light mins
sun to pluto
5 light hours
Objects of the Solar System: the sun
Contains 99.86% mass of solar system, Hot ionized gas, Produces energy
Planets and other Objects
Much smaller, solid and liquid matter, REFLECT sunlight
The solar neighborhood
The region of space around the sun including the sun and solar system, sea of stars and star clusters visible in the sky and their possible planets
typical distance between stars
Several light years, 1 light year= 9.47×10^12 km
A galaxy
a huge rotating system including the sun and entire solar neighborhood, billions of other stars and planets, gas, dust, black holes etc, roughy 100,000 light years across
Sun and Solar system orbit galaxy
roughly 220 million years
The local group
a large region of space containing The milky way, andromeda galaxy, over 3 dozen smaller galaxies, roughly 3 million light years across
The Local (Virgo) Supercluster
an enormous region of space containing the local group, the virgo cluster, up to 100 other galaxy clusters, up to 50-100 million light years in size
Scientific method
question, hypothesize, experiment, observe and record, analyze, share results
Categories: Astronomy