Honors Earth and Space

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What scientist is believed to have started modern astronomy?
Copernicus
What are the five scientists believed to have given birth to modern astronomy?
Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton
What is the Heliocentric Model?
Sun Centered Model
What is the Geocentric Model?
Earth Centered Model
The 20th Century is known as this:
Era of Space Exploration
What theory is used to describe what happened to the continents that were all once joined together, but are now separate?
Continental Drift
What is being described when early geologists thought that a few catastrophic events such as the Great Global Flood, formed most of the rocks and the landscape features on Earth?
Catastrophism
What is the force that exists between any two objects that have a mass and that pulls on the objects together?
Gravity
According to what theory did the Universe originate at a single point?
Big Bang Theory
In what galaxy is our solar system found?
Milky Way
What is being described in “the present is the key to the past”?
Uniformitarianism
The study of planets as whole systems:
Astronomy
The study of Earth’s landforms:
Geography
The study of Earthquake waves:
Seismology
The study of rocks:
Petrology
The study of Earth’s celestial objects:
Astronomy
The study of physics of Earth’s structures and processes:
Geology
The study of physics in the Universe:
Astrophysics
The study of Earth’s history:
Geophysics
The study of Earth’s physical environments:
Geology
The study of physical and chemical characteristics of ocean environments:
Oceanography
The study of Earth’s physical structure and processes:
Paleontology
Which major technological development helped advance the study of earth’s history by allowing paleontologists the ability to date events with greater certainty:
Radiometric Dating
The study of earths physical environments:
Geography
Who developed the laws of planetary motion?
Kepler
The developed the laws of gravity:
Newton
Who developed the idea of the sea floor spreading and plate tectonics?
Hess
Who developed the idea of the continental drift theory:
Wegener
Who discovered Jupiter and 4 of it’s moons, also work on heliocentric model. Developed universal laws of acceleration:
Galileo
Who is responsible for the Heliocentric Model?
Copernicus
Who is responsible for expanding the universe theory:
Hubble
Who is responsible for developing astronomical instruments. Also known for measuring and fixing the position of stars:
Brahe
The centuries after the scientific revolution are known as what?
The age of Exploration
How long does it take for earth to revolve around the sun?
365.25 days
How often does a leap year occur?
4 years
What two things does size of gravity force depend on?
Mass and Distance
The elongated circle is called what?
Ellipse
What is the tilt of the earth?
23.5 degrees
What is a natural satellite called?
A moon
What was the name of the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth? Who launched it and when?
Sputnik
What is currently the largest satellite operating in space?
International S.S
What is the position when earth is at it’s closest point to the sun:
Perihelion
What is the position when earth is at it’s farthest point from the sun:
Aphelion
When does earth reach its farthest point from the sun?
July
When does an autumnal equinox take place?
September 22/23
When does a vernal equinox take place?
March 20/21
What is the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere?
June 20/21
What is the shortest day of the year in the northern hemisphere?
December 21/22
Where is the sun located when it is summer in the northern hemisphere?
Tropic of Cancer
Where is the sun located when it is winter in the northern hemisphere?
Tropic of Capricorn
What causes seasons?
Tilt
Where does the moon get its light?
The reflection off the sun
How long does it take for the moon to revolve around earth?
28 days
The EM spectrum is typically organized from what?
Longest wavelength to the shortest wavelength
What are the colors of the visible spectrum in the order listed in the previous question?
The longest wavelength is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and finally purple.
Light that can be seen with the unaided eye is called what?
Visible Light
What tool is used to separate while light into waves of different wavelengths?
A Prism
The brightness of a star as it appears from earth, regardless of distance, is called what?
Apparent Magnitude
The brightness of a star would have from the same distance is called what?
Absolute Magnitude
Prolonged exposure to this type of rays can result in sunburns and skin cancer?
UV rays
The average distance between Earth and the Sun is called an:
Astronomical Unit
The distance that light travels in a vacuum in one year is called what?
A light year
The International Astronomical Union recognizes how many constellations:
88 constellations
48 of the total number of the constellations are associated with what group of people?
Greeks
Does the earth follow a direct or a retrograde orbit?
Direct
The point about 4600 km from the very center of the earth is what?
Barycenter
What is meant by the Goldilocks Zone?
The habitable zone
When the sun is directly over the equator, this is called a what?
Equinox
What type of EM waves have the longest wavelength?
Radial
What type of EM waves have the shortest wavelength?
Gama
What is the approximate age of the universe?
13.5 Billion years
What are the two most comment elements in the universe?
Hydrogen and Helium
What is the approximate age of the Earth?
4.6 Billion years
What process fuels stars?
Nuclear Fission
True/False? Stars last forever?
False
What is the most massive object in our solar system?
The sun
Which planets are terrestrial?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
What elements make up the cores of the inner planets?
Iron and Nickel
Where is the asteroid belt found?
Between Mars and Jupiter
What planets are considered “Gas Giants”?
Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus
Earth and all other objects in our solar system are located within what part of the Milky Way?
Orion Arm
What does our solar system resolve around?
Center of the Milky way galaxy
What is the term used to describe the planets of our solar system other than our own?
Exoplanets
What is one of the oldest sciences in human history?
Astronomy
What holds all the objects in the solar system in orbit?
Gravity
What unit is used to measure distances in the solar system?
Astronomical Unit
What planet was downgraded to a “dwarf planet” in 2006?
Pluto
How many moons does Mercury have?
None (Zero)
How long does it take Mercury to orbit the sun?
88 Earth Days
What planet has been called Earth’s sister planet?
Venus
How long does it take Venus to orbit the sun?
225 Earth Days
How many moons does Venus have?
None (Zero)
How many moons does Mars have?
Two
Mars is home to the solar systems largest what?
Volcanoes
What was the latest mission to get data from Mercury?
Messenger
What is the largest planet in our solar system?
Jupiter
What are the four largest moons of Jupiter?
Lo, Castillo, Ganymede, Europa
Saturn is best known for what?
It’s system of rings.
True/False? Saturn is the only planet to have rings?
False
What is different about Uranus’ tilt?
ITs parallel to the ecliptic
Which of the gas giants is the densest?
Neptune
What are the dark spots that appear on Neptune’s surface?
Massive Storms
True/False? Asteroids have the same make-up as planets?
True
True/False? Meteoroids collide with earth everyday.
True
Short period comets take how long to orbit the sun?
200 years or less
Long period comets take how long to orbit the sun?
200 years or more
Which of Jupiter’s moons has over 400 active volcanoes?
Lo
What moon of Jupiter could possibly be a place where extraterrestrial life could develop?
Europa
What is different about Triton’s orbit?
It is parallel to the ecliptic.
What is the largest moon of Neptune?
Triton
What of Saturn’s moons is the 2nd largest in the solar system?
Titan
What does the Giant Impact hypothesis state?
The moon was formed by a collision
When was the idea that the moon was formed by an impact proposed?
Mid 1940’s
What conditions make earth unique enough to sustain life?
Cycling Matter, and Flowing of Energy
What are three classifications of asteroids?
carbonaceous, metallic, siliceous
What are three types of meteoroids?
Stony, Stony-Iron, and Iron
Most common meteoroid?
Stony
What two planets deflect of absorb most of the comets as they pass gas giants?
Jupiter and Saturn
What is the current Eon, Era, Epoch, and Period?
Phanerozoic, cenozoic, quaternary, and holocene
What many years ago did the dinosaurs appear?
65 Ma
Which time is longer, Geologic or human time?
Geologic
When was the end of the last major ice age?
10 Ka
What are the divisions of time from longest to shortest?
Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
How much of earths history is taken up by Hadeon, Archean, and Proterozoic eon?
90%/First 4 Billion Years
Which eon began with the formation of earth?
Hadeon
What was responsible for the oxygenated atmosphere?
Photosynthetic Bacteria
In which Eon and Era did the Cambrian Explosion begin in?
Phanerozoic, anf Paleozoic
What marks the boundaries between some geologic eras and periods?
Mass Extinction
In what period did most part of the major animal groups that still exist today begin to evolve?
Cambrian Period
During which ERA did the dinosaurs dominate?
Mesozoic
What period was “a time of recovery”?
Triassic
What period did the reptile dominate the air?
Jurassic
During which period did many of the modern animals develop?
Cretaceous
What period is known as “the age of humans”?
Neogene
During which PERIODS did major extinctions take place?
Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous
What principle states “sedimentary rock formations were originally formed in horizontal layers”?
Original Horizontality
What occurs when rock laters are uplifted unevenly, causing the layers to no longer be horizontal?
Tilt
“Before the Colorado River carved out the Grand Canyon, the rock laters on either side were laterally continuous” is an example of what?
Lateral Continuity
What is meant by superposition?
Younger sediment is laid on top of older sediment
In the principle of “Inclusion”, which rock is older?
The Inclusion
What principle states “rock formations that have been subdivided since their formation can be assumed to have originally been laterally continuous”?
Lateral Continuity
In superposition, which rock is the youngest?
On top
In which period did the asteroid hit the earth and kill off a huge amount of dinosaurs?
Cretaceous
In which period were the Appalachian Mountains formed?
Devonian
What does Ga stand for in years?
Hundreds
What does Ma stand for in years?
Million
What does Ka stand for in years?
Thousand
Categories: Astronomy