Honors Earth Science Astronomy Test

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Geocentric
Earth-center solar system
Heliocentric
Sun-centered solar system
Contributions from Copernicus
From Poland
Concluded that Earth was a planet
Copernican Theory–sun centered solar system
Contributions from Galileo
Phases of Venus
Jupiter’s moons
Discovered sunspots
Went blind because of this
Contributions from Aristotle
Proved that the Earth was round
Rotation
Time for a planet to make one spin on its axis
Represents days
Kepler’s Laws
1.) Orbit in ellipse
2.) Law of equal areas (faster when closer to the sun)
3.) p2=d3 (planet’s period is proportional to its distance)
Constellations are useful to modern day astronomers
They’re a guide to help generalize the layout of the known universe and make it easier to understand
Revolution
Earth’s revolution is 365 days. This represents years. This motion is Earth orbiting the sun.
Aphelion
farthest from the sun–July 4
Perihelion
closest to sun–January 3
Precession
Doesn’t change the seasons
Moon phases
New, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent
Solar eclipse
when the moon fully or partially blocks the sun
Lunar eclipse
when the Earth casts a shadow on the moon
Tides
the gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon
Neap tides
high tides lower than normal
low tides higher than normal
least tidal range
during first and last quarters
Spring tides
high tides are higher
low tides are lower
greatest tidal range
during new and full moon
Moonrise/moonset
DAY: new, crescents
NIGHT: full, gibbous’
Giant Impact Theory
Moon was formed out of the debris left over from an indirect collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 billion years
moon’s gravitational effect on Earth
1.) moon keeps Earth’s axis steady
2.) tides
Perigee
moon closest to Earth (super moon)
Apogee
moon farthest from Earth
cause of moon phases
depends on its position in relation to the Sun and Earth
Solar day
24 hours
compared to the sun
Sidereal day
True rotation
23h 56m 4.09s
compared to the distant stars
Why the difference?
the Earth wouldn’t be lined up with the sun if we didn’t add four minutes
Why do we see the same side of the moon?
The moon’s period of rotation is the same as its revolution
Categories: Astronomy