Geology Chapter 3- Minerals
What is the definition of minerals?
Naturally occurring, Inorganic, Solid, Ordered internal molecular structure, Definite chemical composition
What is the definition of a rock?
A solid aggregate or mass of minerals
What is the chemistry of minerals?
Atoms, Charged atoms (ions), and Isotopes
What consist of an atom?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons
What is a proton?
It is positively charged and in the nucleus
What is a neutron?
It is neutral charged and in the nucleus
What is an electron?
It is negatively charged but surrounds the nucleus
What do ions consist of?
Anion and Cations
What is an isotope?
A nucleus with a specific number of proton and neutrons. Another isotope of the same element will have a different number of neutrons.
What is chemical bonding?
Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements
What are the different types of chemical bonds?
Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic
What is covalent bonding?
Atoms share electrons
What is ionic bonding?
Atoms gain or lose outermost electrons to form ions
What is metallic bonding?
Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms
How do we identify minerals?
Luster, Streak test, Hardness, Cleavages, Fracture, Color, Special gravity, Special properties
What is luster?
Appearance of a mineral in reflected light
What is color?
Generally an unreliable diagnostic property to use for mineral identification
What is cleavage?
Tendency to break along planes of weak bonding
What is fracture?
Absence of cleavage when a mineral is broken
What is streak?
Color of a mineral in its powdered form
What is hardness?
Resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching
What are the mineral classes?
Silicate, Carbonate, Oxides, Sulfates, Halites, and Native minerals
What are the classification of silicates?
Isolated tetrahedron silicate, Single chain silicate, Double chain silicate, Sheet silicate, and Framework silicate