Chapter 1 – History of Oceanography Study Guide

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What percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water?
List ways marine organisms and oceans are important:
Food, medicine, scientific study, jobs, transportation and weather patterns.
Definition: The study of living organisms that inhabit the seas and their interactions with each other and their environment.
Marine Biology
Definition: The study of oceans and their phenomena, such as waves, currents, and tides.
What tools do we use to obtain information about the ocean and its inhabitants?
AOVs, GPSs, HOVs, ROVs, satellite, scuba, and sonars.
What was the first expedition devoted to marine biology and started the development of modern oceanography?
Challenger expedition
What was the second marine biology laboratory?
Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole
Who founded the second marine biology laboratory?
Alexander Agassiz
Who was called “Father of Physical Oceanography”?
Matthew Murray
What are the steps of the Scientific Method?
Question, hypothesis, experiment, observation, analysis, conclusion.
Definition: Looking at individual overcast ions and proposing a general explanation.
Definition: observations that suggest some general idea in which a statment can be drawn.
Definition: using references on shore to navigate.
Who were the two men in charge of the challenger expedition?
Sir Charles Wyville Thomson and Sir John Murray
Floating Instrument Platform (horizontal – vertical)
Definition: The orderly pattern of gathering and analyzing information to understand how the natural world works.
Scientific method
Definition: Untethered robotic device propelled through water by self contained power systems and piloted by an on board computer.
Who were the first group of people to sail the oepn ocean?
Which European is credited with the discovery of the Pacific Ocean?
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Charles Darwin’s observations on the HMS Beagle led to:
Origin of Natural Selection
Which group used references on shore to navigate or “piloting”?
What contribution did the Chinese make to oceanography?
Magnetic Compass
Who led the expedition to the Antartic to study whales?
Alistair Hardy
First group of people to establish trade routes through the Mediteranean Sea?
Who is respinsible for predicting tides based on the phases of the moon?
Which explorer was the first to sail around Cape of Good Hope all the way to India?
Vasco de Gama
Categories: Oceanography