Introduction notes for Oceanography

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Why Study the Oceans?
Scientific curiosity, Travel, Commerce, Food, Minerals including salt, Fresh Water, War/Defense
Water covers ___% of Earth surface area
– oceans and seas
Land is ___% of Earth surface area
– includes lakes, streams, rivers
Earth is a ____ _____ but efforts are
concentrated on land.
water planet
studies all aspects of oceans
Oceanography includes all aspects of study, but there are four main areas.
-Geological Oceanography
-Chemical Oceanography
-Physical Oceanography
-Biological Oceanography
This aspect of Geology focuses on Size and shape of ocean basins, Ages of the sea floor, Ocean rocks versus continental rocks, Sediments that cover the seafloor
Geological Oceanography
This 2nd aspect of Geology focuses on Sea water composition, Extracting useable materials dissolved in seawater, Obtaining fresh water from seawater, Dissolved gases and their exchange between sea and air, Buffer
Chemical Oceanography
This 3rd aspect of Geology focuses on Water motion—
waves, currents, tides; Transmission of energy—sound,
heat, light; Water masses; Pressure
Physical Oceanography
This 4th aspect of Geology focuses on Life of the sea, How sea life affects environment, What life needs for optimum
development, Food chains, Migration patterns, Habits of food fish, prey, and predators
Biological Oceanography
There are many other areas of Oceanography, including:
• Meteorology
• Ecology
Equipment to secure, samples 7 miles below ship, Breakwaters, piers, seawalls, Extracting power from
energy of waves and tides, Designing submarines and other submersibles, Drilling platforms for oil and gas exploration, Nuclear waste disposal?
Marine Engineering
South Coast of Sicily, Italy. Sea ____ and
____ used to create a harbor.
Sea Walls and jetties
Oceans determine world climatic conditions, Oceans affect local weather, Oceans are dominant factor in heat budget, Oceans are the “flywheel of atmospheric circulation”
Oceans and Meteorology
Pollution, Extinction of marine species, Loss of wetlands, Negative environmental impacts
Marine Ecology
Categories: Oceanography