Ocean World – Oceanography

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Average depth and temp. of the ocean
12,100 Ft Average (3688 Meters) – Deepest 36,000 Ft (10,944 Meters)

Temp – 3.9 Celsius (39 F)

Atlantic – 12,612 FT (3844 Meters)
Pacific – 12,927 FT (3940 Meters)
Indian – 12,598 FT (3840 Meters)
Arctic – 3665 FT (1117 Meters)

Which hemisphere contains the most landmass?
Northern Hemisphere
Relative area of the ocean
29% Land; 71% Water
Relative area of ocean to other water sources
Oceans water – 97%
Glaciers – 2.15%
Groundwater – .63%
Soil Moisture – .005%
Atmosphere – .001%
Lakes & Streams – .016%
Earths Ocean
– One Ocean
– Constant Salinity of 3.5%
– Five Principle ocean regions:
1. Arctic Ocean – Smallest and Shallowest Ocean
2. Atlantic Ocean – Second largest
3. Pacific Ocean – Worlds largest and deepest ocean
4. Indian Ocean – Exists mostly in the southern hemisphere
5. Southern Ocean – Defined by Antarctic Convergence and surrounds Antarctica
Oceans Age
4 Billion Years old
Most of water on surface of Earth is in ocean. What are the other important reservoirs?
Ocean Water – 97.5%
Fresh Water – 2.5%
– Glaciers – 68.7%
– Ground Water – 30.1%
– Permafrost – 0.8%
– Surface and atmospheric water – 0.4%
Surface and Atmospheric Water – Broken Down
Freshwater lakes – 67.4%
Soil Moisture – 12.2%
Atmosphere – 9.5%
Wetlands – 8.5%
Rivers – 1.6%
Biota – 0.8%
Steps of the scientific process or method.
1. Observation – collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

2. Hypothesis – A tentative, testable statement about the natural world that can be used to build complex inferences and explanations

3. Testing – Development of observations, experiments, and models to test (and, if necessary, revise) the hypothesis

4. Theory – In science, a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences, and tested hypotheses

What is the difference between a fact, a hypothesis and a theory?
Fact – a thing that is indisputably the case

Hypothesis – a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

Theory – a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

Oceanography incorporates all the major traditional disciplines.
– Physical oceanography
– Marine Chemistry
– Geology
– Biology
– Applied Ocean Sciences: engineering, navigation, instrumentation
Oceanography interfaces with: Astronomy, Geography, Meteorology, Economics, History…, ect
Categories: Oceanography