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description of the marine enviroment
how much oxygen does the ocean supply?
as much as 70%
scientific method
observation, hypothesis, testing, theory
what are the 4 principle oceans on earth?
pacific, atlantic, indian, Arctic, and southern/ antaric ocean


where is the deepest part of the oceans?
deepest part is challenger deep region of the mariana trench which is 11,022 meters below sea level
have humans visited the deepest parts of the ocean?
yes! US Navy Lt Don Walsh and explorer Jacques Picard did in 1960 in a specially designed deep diving bathysphere
how was early exploration of the oceans achieved?
it was achieved by pacific navigators and the phoenicians, greeks and romans
what was accomplished during the age of discovery?
the moonsoon winds helped trade between northern africa and spain. europeans explored the continents of north and south america and the glove was circumnavigated for the first time
when were the first voyages for scientific knowledge?
Captain james cook, HMS challenger expedition, the boyage of the fram
what tools allow researchers to study the oceans?
developments of sonar for military use allowed exploration of the sea floor. today, international cooperation and ocean-observing satellites facilitate research in the world ocean
pacific ocean
largest ocean
covers over 1/2 the surface of the ocean
deepest ocean
named by Ferdinand Magellan
atlantic ocan
half the size of the pacific ocean
same depth
southern hemisphere
arctic ocean
7% the size of pacific
smallest and shallowest region
permanent layer of ice
indian ocean
slightly smaller than atlantic
same average depth
mostly in southern hemisphere
sea vs ocean
seas are smaller, shallower, fresh water, somewhat enclosed by land
whats the average depth of the ocean?
3729 meters (12,234 feet)
3 major island regions in pacific oceans
micronesia, melanesia, and polynesia
thor heyerdahl
an adventurous biologist/anthropologist proposed that voyagers from South American may have reached islands of the south pacific before the coming of the polynesians.
developed the art of navigation first. first great navigators. first civilization in the Mediterranean region to undertake journeys as far as the indian ocean for trading purposes
mapped what the ancient greeks knew of the world in 430 bc
greek astronomer-geographer sailed northward to iceland in 325 bc using a simple yet elegant method for determing latitude.
who discovered greenland?
Erik “the red” thorvaldson who was a viking
captain james cook
determined the outline of the pacific ocean and the first person known to cross the antarctic circle. collected data from coral reefs
sir john ross
collected samples of bottom-dwelling organisms and sediments with a device of his own design called a deep sea clamm.
HMS Challenger expedition
measure water depth using a sound line, temperature, atmospheric and meteorologic conditions, collected organisms from the surface
floating microscopic marine organisms
voyage of the fram
collected samples of arctic ice
how much % is the ocean on the world
is the ocean connected?
yes, it is a single interconnected body of water.
does the largest mountain out high the deepest ocean?
greeks scientific accomplishes
library at Alexandria, latitude determination, calculation of earth’s circumfrence
what did the chinese do?
the ming dynasty sent diplomatic ships as far as africa in the early 15th century.
what happened in the age of discovery during the renaissance?
christopher colombus in 1492 voyaged till 1522 with the first circumnavigation of earth by a voyage initiated by the Ferdinand Magellan
HMS importance?
first major voyage to collect oceanographic information
fram importance?
initiated the study of polar oceanography
what did ben franklin do?
mapped the gulf stream
what did matthew fontaine maury do?
developed international standards for reporting oceanographic data and wrote the first oceanography textbook
can transport researchers to areas of the ocean too deep to be reached by divers.
unmanned robotic remote vessles
have made it possible for oceanographers to remotely observe the deep ocean.
underwater habitiats
allowed researchers to live under the sea for extended periods
Categories: Oceanography