What is Oceanography?
An interdisciplinary science that studies the geological, physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the ocean.
What are the subdisciplines of oceanography? Be able to describe each.
Geological: Studies the ocean’s structures and processes that form them.
Physical: Studies the movement of water
Chemical: Studies the ocean’s dissolved salts and gases
Biological: Studies the ocean’s marine organisms
What were some of the misconceptions of how “Early Voyages” perceived the Earth?
The Earth was flat
The Earth’s surface was mostly land
Mythology used to explain natural phenomena
What was Alexander the Great known with regard to Oceanography?
First marine science library: The Library of Alexandria
How did Eratosthenes accurately determine the size and shape of the Earth?
Measured the angle of shadows at various locations and used geometry to calculate the shape (sphere) and circumference of the Earth
What did Hipparchus contribute to science for voyaging?
Invented our present-day latitude and longitude Lines
Although the Vikings were known as “marauders”, in what way did they contribute to the science of voyaging?
They charted the ocean by keeping detailed records of ocean currents, direction of winds, location of lands, etc., and discovered Iceland and Greenland
What was the sole purpose for the Chinese to voyage out to sea?
To show off the wealth and power of the Young Ming Dynasty
Name 3 things the Chinese contributed to the science for voyaging.
Compass to determine direction
Sophisticated sails to travel faster and farther
Rudder to keep ship stable in rough waters
Watertight compartments to prevent sinking
What was Ferdinand Magellan known for?
His expedition proved it was possible to circumnavigate the globe
What was Charles Darwin’s contribution to “Voyaging for Science”?
How coral reefs and atolls form
Interesting ocean facts
Approximately 71% of Earth’s surface is covered by water; Average depth of Pacific Ocean = 4,638 m; Average depth of Atlantic Ocean = 3,872 m; Average temperature = 3.9°C (39.0°F); Age of oceans = 4 billion years old
Which voyage was the 1st “pure” scientific exploration?
The Challenger Expedition
List some of the things Challenger Expedition discovered.
Life was possible below 549 m (1,800 ft)
Discovered 4,717 new species
Collected ocean water information (temperature, salinity, density, ocean currents, and sediment distribution)
Hypsographic graph (see PPT and know how to read graph): What does this graph tell us about the oceans?
What % of Earth’s surface is above sea level?
Name the highest point and its elevation
Name the deepest point and its elevation
What is the mean average land elevation?
What is the mean depth of the sea?