# Experimental Post Midterm

9.1 A researcher conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of noise on the performance of employees in a manufacturing plant. In this study, the independent variable is:
1) noise
2) work performance
3) the employees
4) the manufacturing plant
5) none of the above
1) noise
9.2 Which of the following statements regarding independent variables is true?
1) they must be held constant
2) they must have two or more levels
3) they must be reliably measured
4) they must involve qualitative variables
5) they must not be invasive
2) they must have two or more levels
9.3 An accomplice of the researcher who poses as another participant is a:
1) manipulation
2) demand character
3) confound
4) confederate
5) double-blind researcher
4) confederate
9.4 When simple random assignment is used:
1) each participant has an equal probability of being placed in any experimental condition
2) participants are assigned to conditions on the basis of their personal characteristics
3) the researcher can be certain that the groups do not differ
4) the same participant serves in more than one condition of the design
5) participants select the condition in which they will participate
1) each participant has an equal probability of being placed in any experimental condition
9.5 In a within-subjects design:
1) each participant serves in all experimental conditions
2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions
3) the dependent variable is measured only once
4) changes within individual participants are studied
5) participants are matched according to a personal characteristic
1) each participant serves in all experimental conditions
9.6 To guard against order effects, researchers use:
1) matched random assignment
2) carry-over effects
3) counterbalancing
4) experimental control
5) larger samples
3) counterbalancing
9.7 A “perfect” experiment maximizes _______ variance and minimizes _______ variance.
1) confound; error
2) error; treatment
3) treatment; error
4) error; confound
5) treatment; primary
3) treatment; error
9.8 Variance in participants’ scores that is not due to the independent variable is either _________ variance or __________ variance.
1) treatment; error
2) error; confound
3) error; primary
4) confound; systematic
5) treatment; confound
2) error; confound
9.9 The degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the effects of an independent variable refers to a study’s:
1) internal validity
2) generalizability
3) reliability
4) external validity
5) demand characteristics
1) internal validity
9.10 Internal validity is increased by the absence of:
1) randomization
2) treatment variance
3) confounding
4) power
5) control
3) confounding
9.11 Biased assignment:
1) increases error variance
2) is a particular problem in within-subjects designs
3) eliminates confounding
4) undermines internal validity
4) undermines internal validity

effect is due to initially nonequivalent groups rather than to the independent variables; can occur when random assignment fails.

9.12 Cues that indicate to participants how they should behave in a study are:
1) demand characteristics
2) experimenter expectancies
3) placebo effects
4) double-blinds
5) external effects
1) demand characteristics – subtle cues that indicate to people how they should behave.
9.13 When behavior is affected by participants’ expectations, _________ occurs.
1) the experimenter’s dilemma
2) differential attrition
3) pretest sensitization
4) a placebo effect
5) a carryover effect
4) a placebo effect
9.14 The “experimenter’s dilemma” refers to the trade-off between:
1) experimental and correlational research
2) between-subjects and within-subjects designs
3) internal and external validity
4) treatment and error variance
5) experimental and control groups
3) internal and external validity
9.15 Which of the following contribute to error variance?
1) treating individual participants differently
2) differences in participants’ personal characteristics
3) participants’ current moods
4) measurement error
5) all of the above
5) all of the above
10.1 A between-within factorial design:
1) has only one independent variable
2) has features of a randomized groups and repeated measures design
3) is an expericorr factorial design
4) is a cross-over design
5) is a matched-subjects design
2) has features of a randomized groups and repeated measures design
Between – two or more groups
Within – Same group with more than one level
Within/Between – one variable that separates the group into two levels.
10.2 An experiment with two independent variables, each of which has three levels would be indicated as a _______ design:
1) 3 × 3
2) 2 × 2 × 2
3) 1 × 2
4) 2 × 3
5) 3 × 2
1) 3 × 3

Total groups = 9 (Why not 6?)…definitely 9…

10.3 An interaction is present when:
1) participants in one condition differ from participants in all other conditions
2) the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of another independent variable
3) there are as many main effects as independent variables
4) the effects of two main effects combine
5) one independent variable affects another independent variable
2) the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of another independent variable.
10.4 Factor is sometimes used as a synonym for:
1) condition
2) independent variable
3) dependent variable
4) interaction
5) level
2) independent variable
10.5 The effect of a single independent variable is a (an):
1) main effect
2) within-participants effect
3) participant variable
4) interaction
5) moderator
1) main effect
10.6 When graphed, interactions appear as _________ lines.
1) nonparallel
2) curved
3) two
4) parallel
5) perpendicular
1) nonparallel
10.7 When the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of another independent variable, a (an) ________ is present.
1) between-within effect
2) correlation
3) main effect
4) factorial
5) interaction
5) interaction
10.8 Which of the following is not a participant variable?
1) self-esteem
2) age
3) weight
4) IQ
5) these are all participant variables
5) these are all participant variables

participant variable – things that people “come with”

10.9 A factorial design:
1) has more than one dependent variable
2) allows the researcher to test only for main effects
3) involves the manipulation of two or more variables
4) is a type of one-way design
5) is not a true experimental design
3) involves the manipulation of two or more variables
10.10 In a two-way design:
1) there is one main effect and two interactions
2) there are two main effects and one interaction
3) there are two main effects and two interactions
4) there are four main effects and four interactions 5) the number of main effects and interactions depends on the number of conditions
2) there are two main effects and one interaction
11.1 A Type I error occurs when a researcher:
1) rejects a null hypothesis that is false
2) rejects a null hypothesis that is true
3) fails to reject a null hypothesis that is false
4) fails to reject a null hypothesis that is true
5) accepts a null hypothesis that is true
2) rejects a null hypothesis that is true
11.2 A difference between means that is statistically significant is:
1) due to error variance
2) not likely to be a Type II error
3) a null finding
4) greater than the calculated value of t
5) unlikely to be due to error variance
5) unlikely to be due to error variance
11.3 A power analysis is often used to determine:
1) the number of participants needed for a study
2) the likelihood of making a Type I error
3) the strength of the independent variable
4) whether to reject the null hypothesis
5) the alpha-level
1) the number of participants needed for a study
11.4 An effect size of .40 indicates that:
1) the alpha-level is .60
2) power is low
3) 40% of the variability in the dependent variable is due to the independent variable
4) beta is .40
5) the chance of making a Type II error is .40
3) 40% of the variability in the dependent variable is due to the independent variable
11.5 Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false is:
1) confounding
2) Type I error
3) Type II error
4) alpha
5) none of above
3) Type II error
11.6 If statistical analyses show that the difference between condition means is larger than would be expected on the basis of error variance alone, a researcher will:
1) accept the null hypothesis
2) reject the null hypothesis
3) fail to reject the null hypothesis
4) reject the experimental hypothesis
5) both a and d
2) reject the null hypothesis
11.7 If statistical analyses show that the difference between condition means is no larger than would be expected on the basis of error variance alone, a researcher will:
1) accept the null hypothesis
2) reject the null hypothesis
3) fail to reject the null hypothesis
4) reject the experimental hypothesis
5) both a and d
3) fail to reject the null hypothesis
11.8 Inferential statistics such as t-tests are used to test:
1) the likelihood of a Type II error
2) pretests
3) directional, but not nondirectional hypotheses
4) differences between condition means
5) randomization
4) differences between condition means
11.9 One-tailed is to two-tailed as:
1) alpha is to beta
2) directional is to nondirectional
3) randomized is to matched
4) posttest only is to pretest-posttest
5) Type II is to Type I
2) directional is to nondirectional
11.10 Type I is to Type II as:
1) a null is to experimental
2) alpha is to beta
3) t is to F
4) accept is to reject
5) directional is to nondirectional
2) alpha is to beta
13.1 A nonequivalent groups posttest-only design is also called a(an)
1) static group comparison
2) regression design
3) biased participants design
4) experimental design
5) post hoc comparison
1) static group comparison
1) several pretest measures of the dependent variable
2) several manipulations of the independent variable
3) several posttest measures of the dependent variable
4) both a and c
5) both b and c
4) both a and c
13.3 A quasi-independent variable:
1) has only one level
2) is a characteristic of the participants
3) is not manipulated by the researcher
4) is an observed behavior
5) is held constant
3) is not manipulated by the researcher
13.4 Compared to true experiments, quasi-experiments:
1) generally do not control extraneous variables as well
2) are less useful for answering many real-world questions
3) lack realism
4) can not be analyzed using sophisticated statistics
5) all of the above
1) generally do not control extraneous variables as well.
13.5 Compared to true experiments, quasi-experiments tend to:
1) have lower internal validity
2) involve more participants
3) use simpler designs
4) be used more for research on animals
5) have lower external validity
1) have lower internal validity
13.6 Which of the following is not a criterion for inferring causality?
1) the cause and the effect covary
2) alternative explanations of the results are eliminated
3) the causal variable precedes the hypothesized effect
4) participants must be randomly assigned to conditions
5) a systematic relationship is observed between the cause and effect
4) participants must be randomly assigned to conditions
13.7 Which of the following threats to internal validity is present in a one-group pretest-posttest design?
1) maturation
2) history
3) testing effect
4) none of the above
5) all of the above
5) all of the above
13.8 The primary difference between quasi-experiments and true experiments is that quasi-experiments:
1) require fewer participants
2) do not involve random assignment
3) have no dependent variable
4) involve a single participant
5) are conducted outside of a laboratory
2) do not involve random assignment
13.9 Regression to the mean is most likely to occur:
1) when the sample size is small
2) in research that studies children
3) in posttest-only designs
4) when participants are assigned randomly to experimental groups
5) when participants are selected because of extreme scores
5) when participants are selected because of extreme scores
13.10 The biggest threat to internal validity in a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design is:
1) maturation
2) local history
3) external invalidity
4) experimenter expectancy
5) posttest reactivity
2) local history –
nonequivalent groups are groups that you did not make them
16.1 Why must researchers be careful about using information that they find on the internet?
1) it is often wrong
2) it may be plagiarized
3) it has often not been peer reviewed
4) it is usually already published elsewhere
5) all of the above
5) all of the above NO
Maybe 3) it has often not been peer reviewed
16.2 Which of the following is not a characteristic of good scientific writing?
1) clarity
2) organization
3) conciseness
4) exhaustiveness
5) all of these are characteristics of good scientific writing
4) exhaustiveness
16.3 When reporting the results of statistical tests in a research article, which of the following pieces of information should not be presented?
1) the degrees of freedom
2) the name of the test
3) the level of significance
4) the critical value of the statistic
5) the calculated value of the statistic
4) the critical value of the statistic
16.4 The brief summary that appears at the beginning of a research article is called the:
1) synopsis
2) summary
3) overview
4) introduction
5) abstract
5) abstract
16.5 If you were using an article by Howard, Howard, and Fine (1936), how would you cite it the second time it appeared in the text?
1) Howard, Howard, and Fine (1936)
2) Howard, Howard, and Fine
3) Howard et al. (1936)
4) Howard, Howard, Fine, et al. (1936)
5) Howard (as previously cited)
3) Howard et al. (1936)
t2.2 In experimental research, researchers generally regard _______ as more important than _______.
1) independent variables; dependent variables
2) error variance; confounding variance
3) regression; correlation
4) internal validity; external validity
5) systemization; randomization
4) internal validity; external validity
t2.6 Treatment variance:
1) can not be distinguished from confound variance
2) threatens the internal validity of an experiment
3) is the same as secondary variance
4) should be eliminated
5) reflects unsystematic differences among participants
1) can not be distinguished from confound variance
t2.9 Which of the following is an advantage of matched-subjects designs over randomized groups designs?
1) fewer participants are needed
2) the experimental groups are more likely to be similar
3) they are easier to conduct
4) pretest sensitization is less likely
5) fewer experimental conditions are needed
2) the experimental groups are more likely to be similar?
t2.10 A Type I error can only occur when a researcher
1) accepts the null hypothesis
2) rejects the null hypothesis
3) fails to reject the null hypothesis
4) rejects the experimental hypothesis
5) both a and d
2) rejects the null hypothesis
t2.15 The paired t-test:
1) is used for randomized groups designs
2) is less powerful than the randomized t-test
3) is used to analyze within-subjects designs
4) tests differences between pairs of participants
5) requires that two t-tests be conducted
4) tests differences between pairs of participants
t2.16 The probability that a researcher is willing to make a Type I error is:
1) the alpha-level
2) the calculated value of t
3) beta
4) the null hypothesis
5) error variance
1) the alpha-level
t2.17 The calculated value of t is the ratio of:
1) the error variance to sample size
2) the difference between means to error variance
3) population variance to sample variance
4) degrees of freedom to variance
5) alpha to beta
2) the difference between means to error variance
t2.18 The numerator of the t-test contains:
1) the condition means
2) the alpha-level
3) an estimate of the error variance
4) the sample size
5) the pooled standard deviation
1) the condition means
t2.19 What statistic is typically used to test the difference between two means?
1) ANOVA
2) t-test
3) power analysis
4) F-test
5) regression analysis
2) t-test
t2.27 Experimental contamination occurs when:
1) the experimenter informs participants of his or her hypotheses
2) participants are not randomly assigned to conditions
3) a variable unrelated to the study affects participants’ responses
4) participants in different conditions interact with one another
5) a pretest-posttest design is used
4) participants in different conditions interact with one another
t1.8 In a stepwise multiple regression analysis:
1) variables that correlate with the outcome variable may not be significant predictors in the regression equation
2) the variables are measured at two different times
3) the criterion variables enter the equation according to their ability to predict unique variance in the outcome variable
4) the researcher enters the predictor variables in a predetermined order
5) variables with significant Pearson correlations with the outcome variable enter the equation
3) the criterion variables enter the equation according to their ability to predict unique variance in the outcome variable
t1.10 Inferential statistics such as t-tests are used to test:
1) the likelihood of a Type II error
2) differences between condition means
3) pretests
4) randomization
5) “directional, but not nondirectional hypotheses”
2) differences between condition means
t1.12 Regression analysis is often used:
1) to predict scores
2) to analyze experimental studies
3) to study curvilinear relationships
4) to analyze cross-lagged panel designs
5) none of the other options
1) to predict scores
t1.13 Researchers pilot test independent variables to:
1) determine whether participants can detect differences in the levels
2) allow confederates to practice their roles
3) see whether they affect the dependent variable
4) look for confounds
5) eliminate error variance
1) determine whether participants can detect differences in the levels
t1.15 What kind of reliability would be relevant in a study in which two observers recorded children’s aggressive behaviors on the playground?
1) interpersonal
2) interrater
3) convergent
4) observational
5) Cronbach’s
2) interrater
t1.15 Why is it possible for condition means to differ at the end of an experiment even if the independent variable had no effect?
1) randomization
2) a Type II error has occurred
3) power was low
4) a null finding has been obtained
5) error variance
5) error variance
t1.18 Which of the following is true of using shoe size as a measure of intelligence?
1) it is a reliable measure
2) it is an unreliable measure
3) it is an invalid measure
4) both reliable and invalid
5) both unreliable and invalid
4) both reliable and invalid
t1.20 “In a study of the effects of exercise on cardiovascular fitness, a sport psychologist randomly assigned participants to one of four groups. Participants engaged in aerobic exercise for either 0, 15, 30, or 60 minutes three days a week for three months. Which of the following statements is true about this study?”
1) this is not an experiment
2) the dependent variable has four levels
3) participants in the control group did not exercise
4) there are four independent variables
5) there is no control group
3) participants in the control group did not exercise
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