# Experimental Post Midterm

1) noise

2) work performance

3) the employees

4) the manufacturing plant

5) none of the above

1) they must be held constant

2) they must have two or more levels

3) they must be reliably measured

4) they must involve qualitative variables

5) they must not be invasive

1) manipulation

2) demand character

3) confound

4) confederate

5) double-blind researcher

1) each participant has an equal probability of being placed in any experimental condition

2) participants are assigned to conditions on the basis of their personal characteristics

3) the researcher can be certain that the groups do not differ

4) the same participant serves in more than one condition of the design

5) participants select the condition in which they will participate

1) each participant serves in all experimental conditions

2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions

3) the dependent variable is measured only once

4) changes within individual participants are studied

5) participants are matched according to a personal characteristic

1) matched random assignment

2) carry-over effects

3) counterbalancing

4) experimental control

5) larger samples

1) confound; error

2) error; treatment

3) treatment; error

4) error; confound

5) treatment; primary

1) treatment; error

2) error; confound

3) error; primary

4) confound; systematic

5) treatment; confound

1) internal validity

2) generalizability

3) reliability

4) external validity

5) demand characteristics

1) randomization

2) treatment variance

3) confounding

4) power

5) control

1) increases error variance

2) is a particular problem in within-subjects designs

3) eliminates confounding

4) undermines internal validity

5) leads to attrition

effect is due to initially nonequivalent groups rather than to the independent variables; can occur when random assignment fails.

1) demand characteristics

2) experimenter expectancies

3) placebo effects

4) double-blinds

5) external effects

1) the experimenter’s dilemma

2) differential attrition

3) pretest sensitization

4) a placebo effect

5) a carryover effect

1) experimental and correlational research

2) between-subjects and within-subjects designs

3) internal and external validity

4) treatment and error variance

5) experimental and control groups

1) treating individual participants differently

2) differences in participants’ personal characteristics

3) participants’ current moods

4) measurement error

5) all of the above

1) has only one independent variable

2) has features of a randomized groups and repeated measures design

3) is an expericorr factorial design

4) is a cross-over design

5) is a matched-subjects design

Between – two or more groups

Within – Same group with more than one level

Within/Between – one variable that separates the group into two levels.

1) 3 × 3

2) 2 × 2 × 2

3) 1 × 2

4) 2 × 3

5) 3 × 2

Total groups = 9 (Why not 6?)…definitely 9…

1) participants in one condition differ from participants in all other conditions

2) the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of another independent variable

3) there are as many main effects as independent variables

4) the effects of two main effects combine

5) one independent variable affects another independent variable

1) condition

2) independent variable

3) dependent variable

4) interaction

5) level

1) main effect

2) within-participants effect

3) participant variable

4) interaction

5) moderator

1) nonparallel

2) curved

3) two

4) parallel

5) perpendicular

1) between-within effect

2) correlation

3) main effect

4) factorial

5) interaction

1) self-esteem

2) age

3) weight

4) IQ

5) these are all participant variables

participant variable – things that people “come with”

1) has more than one dependent variable

2) allows the researcher to test only for main effects

3) involves the manipulation of two or more variables

4) is a type of one-way design

5) is not a true experimental design

1) there is one main effect and two interactions

2) there are two main effects and one interaction

3) there are two main effects and two interactions

4) there are four main effects and four interactions 5) the number of main effects and interactions depends on the number of conditions

1) rejects a null hypothesis that is false

2) rejects a null hypothesis that is true

3) fails to reject a null hypothesis that is false

4) fails to reject a null hypothesis that is true

5) accepts a null hypothesis that is true

1) due to error variance

2) not likely to be a Type II error

3) a null finding

4) greater than the calculated value of t

5) unlikely to be due to error variance

1) the number of participants needed for a study

2) the likelihood of making a Type I error

3) the strength of the independent variable

4) whether to reject the null hypothesis

5) the alpha-level

1) the alpha-level is .60

2) power is low

3) 40% of the variability in the dependent variable is due to the independent variable

4) beta is .40

5) the chance of making a Type II error is .40

1) confounding

2) Type I error

3) Type II error

4) alpha

5) none of above

1) accept the null hypothesis

2) reject the null hypothesis

3) fail to reject the null hypothesis

4) reject the experimental hypothesis

5) both a and d

1) accept the null hypothesis

2) reject the null hypothesis

3) fail to reject the null hypothesis

4) reject the experimental hypothesis

5) both a and d

1) the likelihood of a Type II error

2) pretests

3) directional, but not nondirectional hypotheses

4) differences between condition means

5) randomization

1) alpha is to beta

2) directional is to nondirectional

3) randomized is to matched

4) posttest only is to pretest-posttest

5) Type II is to Type I

1) a null is to experimental

2) alpha is to beta

3) t is to F

4) accept is to reject

5) directional is to nondirectional

1) static group comparison

2) regression design

3) biased participants design

4) experimental design

5) post hoc comparison

1) several pretest measures of the dependent variable

2) several manipulations of the independent variable

3) several posttest measures of the dependent variable

4) both a and c

5) both b and c

1) has only one level

2) is a characteristic of the participants

3) is not manipulated by the researcher

4) is an observed behavior

5) is held constant

1) generally do not control extraneous variables as well

2) are less useful for answering many real-world questions

3) lack realism

4) can not be analyzed using sophisticated statistics

5) all of the above

1) have lower internal validity

2) involve more participants

3) use simpler designs

4) be used more for research on animals

5) have lower external validity

1) the cause and the effect covary

2) alternative explanations of the results are eliminated

3) the causal variable precedes the hypothesized effect

4) participants must be randomly assigned to conditions

5) a systematic relationship is observed between the cause and effect

1) maturation

2) history

3) testing effect

4) none of the above

5) all of the above

1) require fewer participants

2) do not involve random assignment

3) have no dependent variable

4) involve a single participant

5) are conducted outside of a laboratory

1) when the sample size is small

2) in research that studies children

3) in posttest-only designs

4) when participants are assigned randomly to experimental groups

5) when participants are selected because of extreme scores

1) maturation

2) local history

3) external invalidity

4) experimenter expectancy

5) posttest reactivity

nonequivalent groups are groups that you did not make them

1) it is often wrong

2) it may be plagiarized

3) it has often not been peer reviewed

4) it is usually already published elsewhere

5) all of the above

Maybe 3) it has often not been peer reviewed

1) clarity

2) organization

3) conciseness

4) exhaustiveness

5) all of these are characteristics of good scientific writing

1) the degrees of freedom

2) the name of the test

3) the level of significance

4) the critical value of the statistic

5) the calculated value of the statistic

1) synopsis

2) summary

3) overview

4) introduction

5) abstract

1) Howard, Howard, and Fine (1936)

2) Howard, Howard, and Fine

3) Howard et al. (1936)

4) Howard, Howard, Fine, et al. (1936)

5) Howard (as previously cited)

1) independent variables; dependent variables

2) error variance; confounding variance

3) regression; correlation

4) internal validity; external validity

5) systemization; randomization

1) can not be distinguished from confound variance

2) threatens the internal validity of an experiment

3) is the same as secondary variance

4) should be eliminated

5) reflects unsystematic differences among participants

1) fewer participants are needed

2) the experimental groups are more likely to be similar

3) they are easier to conduct

4) pretest sensitization is less likely

5) fewer experimental conditions are needed

1) accepts the null hypothesis

2) rejects the null hypothesis

3) fails to reject the null hypothesis

4) rejects the experimental hypothesis

5) both a and d

1) is used for randomized groups designs

2) is less powerful than the randomized t-test

3) is used to analyze within-subjects designs

4) tests differences between pairs of participants

5) requires that two t-tests be conducted

1) the alpha-level

2) the calculated value of t

3) beta

4) the null hypothesis

5) error variance

1) the error variance to sample size

2) the difference between means to error variance

3) population variance to sample variance

4) degrees of freedom to variance

5) alpha to beta

1) the condition means

2) the alpha-level

3) an estimate of the error variance

4) the sample size

5) the pooled standard deviation

1) ANOVA

2) t-test

3) power analysis

4) F-test

5) regression analysis

1) the experimenter informs participants of his or her hypotheses

2) participants are not randomly assigned to conditions

3) a variable unrelated to the study affects participants’ responses

4) participants in different conditions interact with one another

5) a pretest-posttest design is used

1) variables that correlate with the outcome variable may not be significant predictors in the regression equation

2) the variables are measured at two different times

3) the criterion variables enter the equation according to their ability to predict unique variance in the outcome variable

4) the researcher enters the predictor variables in a predetermined order

5) variables with significant Pearson correlations with the outcome variable enter the equation

1) the likelihood of a Type II error

2) differences between condition means

3) pretests

4) randomization

5) “directional, but not nondirectional hypotheses”

1) to predict scores

2) to analyze experimental studies

3) to study curvilinear relationships

4) to analyze cross-lagged panel designs

5) none of the other options

1) determine whether participants can detect differences in the levels

2) allow confederates to practice their roles

3) see whether they affect the dependent variable

4) look for confounds

5) eliminate error variance

1) interpersonal

2) interrater

3) convergent

4) observational

5) Cronbach’s

1) randomization

2) a Type II error has occurred

3) power was low

4) a null finding has been obtained

5) error variance

1) it is a reliable measure

2) it is an unreliable measure

3) it is an invalid measure

4) both reliable and invalid

5) both unreliable and invalid

1) this is not an experiment

2) the dependent variable has four levels

3) participants in the control group did not exercise

4) there are four independent variables

5) there is no control group