AP Euro Chapter 25 Italian Unification

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What changes did the Age of Nationalism bring about?
1.) Peace + Stability – War + Rapid Change
2.) Romanticism – Realism
3.) Hard Economic times – Great times + Proseperity
What were the causes of the Crimean War?
1.) Russia invades Ottoman Empire in 1853 to get Dardanelles (claims Christians are being unjustly persecuted by Muslims)
2.) Great Britain + France want to maintain “balance of powers”
3.) Sardinia wants to join (on winning side) to plead victors for Italian Unification
Who was Florence Nightingale and how did she make a break through for the status of women?
1.) Disease causes more causalities than the fighting (poor medical care for British solders led nursing pioneer Florence Nightengale to set up hospitals)
2.) men figured if Florence can be such a good nurse and is capable of being a doctor, why are women everywhere being restricted
Kulturkampf
Bismark’s attack on the Catholic Church within Germany from 1870 to 1878, resulting from Pius IX’s declaraction of Papal Infalibility
Red Shirts
The guerilla army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to liberate it, winning the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry
Bloody Sunday
A massacre of peaceful protestors at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905 that triggered a revolution that overturned absolute tsarist rule and made Russia into a conservative constitutional monarchy.
What was included in Napoleon III’s constitution?
– A parliamentary regime with a hereditary emperor as chief of state
– A strong national state w/ universal male suffrage
What did Napoleon III do for the french economy?
1.) New investment banks
2.) Massive railroad construction
3.) Public works projects
Why did Napoleon III get elected?
1.) Name recognition
2.) Middle class liberals + rural peasants feared urban socialists
3.) Plan program for France (creating jobs + stimulating economy)
Best done through authoritarian leader (why declares himself emperor)
Why did France get involved in unification of Italy?
– If Italy becomes one, it could be a threat to France and people are mad since he isn’t doing anything to prevent it.
What caused Italian Unification?
prior to 1850, Italy (except for Sardinia) was heavily controlled by Austria
How did Cavour attempt to unify Italy?
A.) Cavour signs alliance w? France to recapture Lombardy and Venetia from Austria
B.) With French help, Italians are defeating Austrians by 1859 (Napoleon III fears Italy is doing too well, he backs out and prevents future wins)
How did Garibaldi attempt to unify Italy?
– leads nationalistic revolution to unify Italy
– G and his red shirts unite all but Rome under Sardinian leadership
What did King Victor Emmanuel do?
– Had Garibaldi jailed
– Declares himself king of Italy
What happened during the Austro-Prussain war?
A.) Italy and Prussia ally against Austria (Italy wants recognition as a power). Austria is defeated but doesn’t have to pay any war reparations and din’t lose any land
C.) When the Danish king tried to incorporate Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia joined Austria in a short and successful war against Denmark in 1864
What did the Treaty of Paris do?
1.) Russia loses land to Ottoman Empire
What was the German Zollverein?
A customs union
What was the Reichstag?
All German parliment
What did Mazzini’s constitution state?
The constitution provided for a fair degree of civil liberties and real parliamentary government complete with elections and parliamentary control of taxes
What was the Franco-Prussian War and what did it do?
– Bismarck realized that a war with France would drive the south German states into his arms
– German forces under Prussian leadership defeated Louis Napoleon’s armies
– By this time, the south German estates agreed to join a new German empire
– Semi-authoritarian nationalism and a “new conservatism” based on an alliance of the propertied classes and sought the active support of the working classes triumphed
Who was the president of the Third Republic and what did the Third republic promote?
– President Theirs
– public tax supported schools
– Trade Unions triumphed
Categories: Italian