Ultimate Unit 1 (Korean Language Study Cards)

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All purposes of 는은 particles
-To denote the subject
-Comparison
-To state a general fact
All purposes of 이가 particles
-To denote the subject
-To indicate something based off recent experience/ observation
-To stress that the subject did the action
-placed on objects in sentences predicated by adjectives
-placed on the object before 아니다
-Placed on the object predicated by 되다
-Used with 있다 to indicate something a person has
Verb sentence structure
Subject- Object- Verb
Adjective Sentence structure
Subject- Adjective
이다
Am-Is-Are-Was-Were// Not a verb nor an adjective
All Korean sentences…
Must end in a verb or adjective.
있다
To be at a location
To Have
Location words come after _______
Nouns
-Distinguishes time and place
-Indicates something done within a span of time
Verbs that end in 하다
can have 하다 to create a noun form of that verb
-Indicates possession
-attached to words not typically used to describe nouns to give it a descriptive factor
Subjects are often _______.
Omitted (especially when referring to yourself)
우리
Us, We
우리의
Our
To make adjectives able to be placed elsewhere in sentences,,
Remove 다 and add 은ㄴ
Plain Diary Form Conjugation
-Add 는ㄴ followed by 다
If 아,오,야,요 add
아, 았
If anything but 아,오,야,요 add
어, 었
Adverbs-
-Need no particles
-Can be placed anywhere except the end, but are typically found just before the verb or at the beginning of the sentence
How do you create an adverb using Adjectives?
-Add 게
-For Adjectives that end in 하다 you can change it to 하게 or 히
Two ways to make a sentence neg.
-안
-지 않다
It’s common to separate 하다 and…
Whatever else is before it with 안. ((E.G) 안공부 했어요. ))
Past Tense 이다 forms
IFL- Add 어
IFH- 어요
FH- 습니다
To Become- (Verb)
되다
Making 되다 Negative vs Making 이다 Negative
되다- Use 안 지 않다
이다- Use 아니다
Sino Korean Uses:
-Counting Money
-Measuring
-Doing Math
-Phone Numbers
-Talking about Time (except hours)
-Names of Months
Pure Korean Uses:
-Counting People/Things/Actions
-Talking about Hours
-Months
-Indicating Age
Counter for things
Counter for people
Counter for Behaviors
“___o’clock”
____ 시
Minute(s)
동안
Used to say that something was done for a certain amount of time
Month Counter (Pure)
Month Counter (Sino)
개월
-Some
-How Many?
Particle for making something plural
Only
(T or F) 만 cannot be used with any other particle attached
False: 에 can be attached
에서
Denotes location something is happening in/where something occurs; Can be attached to indicate where an adjective occurs.

Also means “from”,, to indicate where the subject is departing from

부터
“From”, indicates where the subject started/is starting.
The particle used to indicate the tool/method/device/material that was used
(으)로

으로- Consonants
로- Vowels

And particles
과 – Consonants
와 – Vowels
이랑 – Consonants
랑 – Vowels
하고
With particles
과 – Consonants
와 – Vowels
이랑 – Consonants
랑 – Vowels
To-
한테 – In convo
에게 – Aloud
께- Respect
From (to receive from)-
~에게서/한테서/
From (Recieving from a non-person)
(으)로부터
To do something for- (For the benefit of)
을/를 위해(서)
About something (I thought ABOUT this)
~에 대해
Saying you are disappointed
When using ~에 대해, though it indicates “About”, it can not mean _____.
“I like ___________ ABOUT you”
Add _____ to change a noun into a word of “having properties” of said noun
스럽다
Word used to describe emotions
실망하다
~아/어서
Another indication of one action happening after another.
Particle added to position words (standing, sitting, laying) to help indicate your position as you carry out an action
~아/어서
How to say “I live in ______”
살고 있다
“I know”
알고 있다
ㄷ Irregular
– When adding a vowel, ㄷ gets changed to ㄹ. This is only done with verbs
ㅅ irregular
– If a syllable ends in ㅅ remove the ㅅ when adding a vowel. This is only done with verbs.
ㅂ Irregular
-ㅂ is removed and instead 우 is added to the next syllable when adding a vowel. Mostly done with adjectives

In words with 어/아 and it’s other forms are added, ㅂ changes to 오

With noun describing adjectives, this does not affect the ㄴ rule.

ㅡ Irregular
If the final vowel is ㅡ look at the previous vowel to determine whether to add 어 or 아.
If a word ends in ㅡ followed by 어/아; ㅡ is eliminated and 어/아 merge with the stem
If the word has one syllable, add 어
If the syllable ends in a consonant, the same rules apply minus the merging.
ㄹ irregular
If the final letter of the stem is ㄹ add ㄴ은 ㄴ는 ㅂ습 ㄹ을, more often then not the first pair is what typically replaces the ㄹ
르 irregular
When adding 어/아 to 르 you add an additionalㄹ to the syllable.
Adjective form Sentence Structure?
Subject- Object이/가- Adjective form. 를을 never go with the object in this case.
들다
To carry something// To enter// Go somewhere- Into something. E.G “I entered sleep” 잠이 들었어요- I fell asleep
The words for And can also be used for
prepositions
How do you form a korean compound verb?
Verb + 어아 + Verb
~작
A common suffix added onto words of Chinese origin
~작 (Result of adding it on)
Changes nouns into descriptive words meaning “Relating to or having the properties of” the original noun.
Connecting particle that indicates one action following right after another.
고 싶어
I want (To do an action)
~고 나서
((Stressed)) Indication that one action follows another
~고 있다
(Present progressive) I am //verb//ing
Cannot be attached to adjectives
가지고 있다
To have/possess
To state “I am _________ (sitting, standing, etc) say _____ not ~고 있다
~아/어 있다
Adjective + ~아/어지다
To become //Adjective//
잘못
Mistake
More
Less
~보다
particle used to make a comparison
Turn ~고 있다 into a verb (through an adjective)
Adjective + 어아지다 (Turns it all into a verb)
Add ~고 있다 to an adjective-verb form…
to say “I want to become //Adjective//”
가장젱일
“-est” Used like an adjective, can not be added with verbs unless an adverb is added too
(잘)하다
To do something well
(못)하다
To do something poorly
습니까//~ㅂ니까
Honorific form of asking a question.
~니
Informal way of asking a question (only the ㄹ rule applies// Drop ㄹ and add ~니)
ㄴ은가요
Soft approach of asking questions (Attached to adjectives)
~아닌가요
Added to create a sense of self doubt in the question. “She’s the most beautiful, no?”
~나(요)
Soft question approach with 있없
Why?
When?
언제
Where?
어디
Who?
누구
Who? (Subject)
누가
How?
어떵게
What do you think of….?
어때
What? (Pronouns)
뭐, 무엇
What? (Description before nouns)
무슨
Which?
어떤
reasons to use 어떤
Choose from a selection of option; ask about the characteristics related to a person/object
when the person is aware of something but is unaware of the specifics
어느
used for giving someone a list of options
How Many?
몇 (placed before the counter)
How Much/How Many?
얼마니
얼마니 (Uses)
to ask the extent of something happening
used before verbs-
얼마-
Can be used to ask the price.
ㅎ irregular
ㅎ is replaced with ㄴ
(ㅎ irr.) When to change the vowel to ㅐ
If the vowel is 어아
(ㅎ irr.) When to change the vowel to ㅒ
When the vowel 야
(이렇다) 이래
Like this
(그렇다) 그래
Like that
(저렇다) 저래
Like that
Uses of (저렇다) (그렇다) (이렇다):
Adding ~ㄴ은 creates “this sort of/kind of/type of/” Adjective form.
Adding 게 turns it into “like___” Adverb
~기 전(에) (after a verb)
“Before ____________”
전(에)
Ago
~ㄴ은 후(에)
“After _______” Added after verbs
Indication that one action immediately followed after another.
~ㄴ은 이래로
Since I
안이내
Indication of time to mean within
Everything/Everywhere/Everytime/Everyone (N.)
모든 placed before noun to say “Every N.” (can be used as an adverb)
-Indication of doing an action to completion
Everywhere/Everytime/Everyone (particle)
~나 is added to when/where/who
Something /Somewhere/Sometime/Somebody
~ㄴ 가 is added to what/where/when/who
아무(나)
Anybody (placed before a thing/time/place)
아무(도)
Nobody (placed before a thing/time/place)
마다
Each (attached to Nouns)
Categories: Korean