Ancient India & China

Name the 2 main religions in Ancient India
Buddhism, & Hinduism
True or False, Hinduism has a founder
False, Hinduism cannot be traced to a particular persons ideas
What was Hinduism a blend of
Aryan traditions and the religious beliefs of nations conquered by the Aryans
Vedas =
sacred texts in which the Aryans preserved their religious beliefs
What did the Vedas and the Upanishads tell the Hindus
the basic truths about life, and the place of the individual in the universe
brahma =
a single supreme force uniting everything in the universe
Do Hindu’s believe in G-d if so a single G-d or many gods
yes. many gods
Confucius:
One of ancient china’s most influential philosophers, Kongfuzi was the founder of Confucianism, He was mainly influenced by the political turmoil of times he lived in and believed the havoc was due to rulers governing poorly. Confucius believed that people were good in essence but need to be taught how to behave properly.
Han feizi:
Legalisms’ most prominent writer, helped in the developing of the doctrine of Legalism born into the ruling aristocracy
Laozi
Essentially the founder of Daosim, the philosophy based on his teachings. The basic goal of which was to live in harmony with nature, following Dao, or “the way.”
Shi Huangdi
Emperor during the short lasting Qin dynasty. Turned ancient China into one of the words greatest empires. Ended the Shang and Zhou way of governing and set up a central government. Created 36 districts each of which ruled by an appointed official.
Fa-Hsien
A Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot all the way from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in modern day Xinjiang, China, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri lanka
Siddartha:
Prince Siddartha Guatama was a member of the warrior caste, who left his wife children, and his protected, isolated life for one of deprivation. For years he lived ont he brink of starvation, until one day while meditating under a bodhi tree he became enlightened
Dravidians
Descendants of the Indus Valley civilization, they fought with the Aryans but eventually retreated and established kingdoms in the south. Those who stayed in the North were assimilated by the Aryans
Aryans:
Tall fair-skinned herders, originally nomadic, but devoted most of their energy to wars with other peoples. They used chariots in battle and were also skilled archers
Alexander the Great
a king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon. Invaded northern India, but after his death a new ruler emerged
Chandragupta Maurya:
ruled from 325-184 BCE, attacked and subdued the northern regions of India. Founded and led one of the most powerful and important dynasties in the ancient world, the Maurya dynasty
Asoka
Ruled from 273-232 BCE, the greatest f Maurya rulers appalled at the slaughter involved with uniting the kingdoms of India, Asoka became a faithful buddhist ad worked fro many years trying to make life better for his subjects.
Chandragupta Maurya 1:
Dreaming of recreating the glory and stability of the Maurya empire Chandragupta Maurya 1 established India’s Golden age, The Gupta empire. After getting himself crowned Maharaja he started the decade an ½ gupta rule.
Artifact =
something made by humans
Dynasties =
a succession of rulers from the same family/bloodline
Loess =
A fine yellowed wind blown silt from northern China
Legalism +=
One of the 3 main philosophies
believed that government was more important than the people and that it should be strong the only way to have an orderly society was by controlling the people and having strict laws and harsh punishments
Chang Liang =
a large river bigger than the huang he and easy to travel on for boats
Huang He =
river valley deposits silt and passes between dikes some call it “China’s Sorrow”
Shang =
One of the first dynasties
from 1650-1027 BCE
controlled their territory politically and divided it into small regions
posessed fine bronze weapons
Tang =
The golden age of china
founded by a government official named Li Huan
The tang made China a flourishing and cosmopolitan empire that was the envy of the world.
Supernatural =
above or beyond the natural
Incantations =
the chanting of words which have spiritual power
Subcontinent =
a large landmass seperated from a continent by geography
Monsoons
a seasonal wind
Tropical =
the hot climate typically near the equator from the tropic of cancer to the tropic of capricorn
Archaeologists =
one who studies historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures
Nomadic =
characteristic of peoples who travel from place to place according to the weather
Caste =
a social group limited to persons of the same rank
Hindu =
Having to do with Hinduism, Hinduism was brought to India with the Aryans and developed through contact with the Dravidians
Tamil =
a descendant of the dravidians
Yogi =
one who practises yoga
a series of exercises that aid meditation
Shrine =
a holy place
Cremated =
burned
Reincarnation =
The Hindu idea of rebirth
Vegetarianism =
the practise of not eating meat
Indus =
One of the 3 major rivers in ancient India
Aryan =
Aryans were tall fair-skinned herders, originally nomadic, but devoted most of their energy to wars with other peoples. They used chariots in battle and were also skilled archers
Maurya =
a dynasty founded by Chandragupta Maurya
lasted from 325-184 BCE
One of the most powerful and important dynasties in the ancient world
Gupta =
India’s golden age, founded by Chandragupta Maurya 1
great strides made in art science music and literature
ruled the north but influenced communities far beyond it
Ganges =
India’s largest river
said to have the power to purify the faithful
Hinduism =
Major religion on India
no known founder
stems from Aryans and Dravidians
Beliefs are call Dharma
Buddhism =
founded in India over 2500 years ago by Siddartha Gautama
four noble truths
middle way
Atman =
the larger universal soul
Sikh =
founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak
began in 16th century
believe there is only one G-d
reject the caste system
Artisan =
someone who makes things
Silk =
cloth spun from fibres made by silkworms
Philosopher
one who searches for knowledge and wisdom
Confucianism
One of the three main Chinese philosophies
5 virtues: honest, upright, conscientious, charitable, and loving in all personal relationships
Daoism =
one of the 3 main Chinese philosophies
based on teachings of Laozi
basic goal was to live in harmony with nature
describe the contributions of the Shang dynasty
bronze
chinese writing
fine pottery
silks
What makes the Tang dynasty a golden age
people were not worried about staying alive and therefore had more time to focus on the arts, culture, literature etc
Outline the main beliefs of the three main Chinese philosophers
Confucianism:
Virtuous people were people who were : conscientious upright honest charitable and loving in all personal relationships
everyone in society had duties and responsibilities

Legalism:
government is more important the the people
strong not virtuous
strict laws for punishment of crimes

Daoism:
goal was to live in harmony with nature
the best kind of government was the government that governed the least

How are the three main Chinese philosophies different
punishment, belief in how people should be governed and treated, how people should behave
In what ways did geography play a role in the development of Chinese civilization
isolated from the rest of the world, they were able to develop without the influence of outsiders
IN what ways did the technological developments made during the golden ages influence civilization
they invented the first vaccinations which has lead to a billion dollar industry that saves millions of lives

they also invented gun powder leading to the invention of guns another huge industry and element of modern combat

How has religion influenced the development of civilization in India
it is the birthplace of many large religions which attract many people to India to celebrate festivals and holy days

many rulers became dedicated to religion thus shaping how they governed

How has the geography of the indian subcontinent influenced people
before the arrival of Europeans India was rarely threatened by invaders
most of the time when India was controlled by another nation, the entire subcontinent was not always under control only parts
Why is the Gupta empire considered to be Indias golden age
because huge advancements were made in art science music and literature
How have the mountains and rivers of the Indian subcontinent influenced the lives of the people
isolated them from other nations
In what ways do monsoons affect the people of India
extreme temperature differences during the year
life saving rains, cool dry winters, harsh summers
Why is the climate of eastern India so different then that of the west coast
monsoon change weather drastically as do the different environments that make up south asia
Categories: Geography