AP Human GEO Chapter 2 vocab

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Age Distribution:
Percentage of the total population, or the population of each sex, at each age level
Agricultural Density:
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Arithmetic Density:
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census:
A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude death rate (CDR):
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Crude birth rate:
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Demographic transition:
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography:
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Doubling time:
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene:
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Infant mortality rate:
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
Natural increase rate (NIR, RNI):
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Physiological density:
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population pyramid:
A bar graph that is used to display a percentage of total population in 5 year age groups. Starting with 0-4 at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top.
Sex ratio:
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Total fertility rate (TFR):
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero population growth:
A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Cairo Conference:
A conference held in Cairo Egypt in September 1994. It called for a plan calls for improved health care and family planning services for women, children and families throughout the world, and also emphasizes the importance of education for girls as a factor in the shift to smaller families.
Carrying capacity:
the amount of people an area can support
Contraception:
Ways that people prevent pregnancies
Child mortality rate:
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population
Conucopians:
People opposite of Malthus
Demographic equation:
NIR = CBR – CDR
non-ecumene:
Area of the Earth’s surface that humans consider too harsh for occupancy (approx. 35-40%).
Epidemiological transition:
The distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries’ population changes.
J-curve:
A curve shaped like the letter J, depicting exponential or geometric growth (1, 2, 4, 8, 16…).
Life expectancy:
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
Malthus, Thomas:
British economist of late 1700’s. considered the first to predict a population crisis.
Natalist (pro- & anti):
(Pro)
When governments want people and their population to have a lot of children (want a growing population)
(Anti)
Concerned with limiting population growth
Neo-Malthusians:
group who built on Malthus’ theory and suggested that people wouldn’t just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources.
Overpopulation:
too many people in one place for the resources available
Population agglomerations:
When populations come together to form a collective group
Replacement fertility:
The number a mother has to have in order to replace the population
S-curve:
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an “S”
Categories: Geography