AP Human GEO Chapter 2 vocab

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Age Distribution:
Percentage of the total population, or the population of each sex, at each age level
Agricultural Density:
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Arithmetic Density:
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude death rate (CDR):
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Crude birth rate:
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.
Demographic transition:
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Doubling time:
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Infant mortality rate:
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
Natural increase rate (NIR, RNI):
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Physiological density:
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population pyramid:
A bar graph that is used to display a percentage of total population in 5 year age groups. Starting with 0-4 at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top.
Sex ratio:
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Total fertility rate (TFR):
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero population growth:
A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Cairo Conference:
A conference held in Cairo Egypt in September 1994. It called for a plan calls for improved health care and family planning services for women, children and families throughout the world, and also emphasizes the importance of education for girls as a factor in the shift to smaller families.
Carrying capacity:
the amount of people an area can support
Ways that people prevent pregnancies
Child mortality rate:
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population
People opposite of Malthus
Demographic equation:
Area of the Earth’s surface that humans consider too harsh for occupancy (approx. 35-40%).
Epidemiological transition:
The distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries’ population changes.
A curve shaped like the letter J, depicting exponential or geometric growth (1, 2, 4, 8, 16…).
Life expectancy:
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
Malthus, Thomas:
British economist of late 1700’s. considered the first to predict a population crisis.
Natalist (pro- & anti):
When governments want people and their population to have a lot of children (want a growing population)
Concerned with limiting population growth
group who built on Malthus’ theory and suggested that people wouldn’t just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources.
too many people in one place for the resources available
Population agglomerations:
When populations come together to form a collective group
Replacement fertility:
The number a mother has to have in order to replace the population
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an “S”
Categories: Geography