AP Human Geography 01: Basic Concepts
an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation
The notion that societies leave their cultural imprints on a place contributing to the cultural landscape.
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion that result from human transformation
the frequency with which something occurs in space
Total number of objects in an area, commonly used to compare the distribution of population
number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture. Could mean a country has difficulty growing enough food.
number of farmers per unit area of farmland.
process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
the place from which an innovation originates
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
A compass direction such as north or south.
Directions based on people’s perception of places
The pattern of spacing among individuals within geographic population boundaries
The extent of a feature’s spread over space; not same as density. Can have same density but completely different this
If the objects in an area are close together
If objects in an area are relatively far apart
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
Arrangement of features in space; three main properties: density, concentration, pattern
Geographic study of human-environment relationships
An approach made by Humboldt and Ritter, 19th century geographers, which concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development, applying laws from the natural sciences to understanding relationships between the physical environment and human actions
The position that something occupies on Earth’s surface
The position of place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England. (Also known as Mathematical Location)
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places.
a physical character of a place, such as characteristics like climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation
The location of a place relative to other places; valuable to indicate location: finding an unfamiliar place and understanding its importance by comparing location with familiar one and learning their accessibility to other places
The name given to a place on earth; may be named for person, founder, or random famous person with no connection to place. Places can change names.
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a sturdy area.
straight pattern, ex. houses along a street
clustered or concentrated at a certain place
a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
A physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics, generally identified to help explain broad global or national patterns, generally illustrating a general concept rather than a precise mathematical distribution
Area organized around a node or focal point/place where there is a central focus that diminishes in importance outward. Used to display information about economic areas.
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity from people’s informal sense of place such as mental maps.
Relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole.
of or pertaining to space on or near Earth’s surface. Often a synonym for geographical and used as an adjective to describe specific geographic concepts or processes.
the movement and flows involving human activity
the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations.
the directness of routes linking pairs of places; an indication of the degree of internal connection in a transport network; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places.
the areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them along which movement can take place.
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Friction of distance
a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the greater the distance, the greater the “friction” and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
an influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases.