AP Human Geography Ch. 2 Vocab

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age distribution
A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
agricultural density
ratio of # of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural revolution
time when humans first began domesticating plants and animals and no longer relied entirel on hunting and gathering
arithmetic density
total # of people divided by the total land area
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
census
A complete enumeration of a population.
child mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.
contraception
the use of devices or drugs to prevent conception
Cornucopians
optimists who question limits-to-growth analyses and contend that markets effectively maintain a balance between population resources and the environment.
crude death rates (CDR)
the number of deaths per thousand a population in a given year
crude birth rates (CBR)
the number of live births per thousand a population in a given year
demographic equation
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
demographic transistion
The process of change in a society’s population from high crude birth and deth rates and low rate of natural increase, all the way to low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase and an increased population
demography
scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio
# of people under the age 15 and over age 64, compared to the # of people active in the labor force
doubling time
# of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
ecumene
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
epidemiological transition
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
J-curve
a growth curve that depicts exponential growth
life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Malthus, Thomas
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
medical revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
pronatalism
an ideology promoting many children, emerges as a key value on farm families
antinatalism
Official policies designed to discourage births
natural increase rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
neomalthusians
a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth
overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
population agglomerations
When populations cluster around cities and have suburbs and cities and such
population pyramids
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
replacement fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
S-curve
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an “S”
sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Categories: Geography