AP Human Geography- Chapter 1- basic concepts

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Define map
A two dimensional or flat scale model of Earth’s surface or a portion of it.
What is the science of mapmaking called?
Cartography
What are the two purposes that not served?
A reference tool and a communication tool
Who first used the term geography?
Eratosthenes
What does the term geography mean?
The study of where things are found on the earth surface and reasons for their location.
Define scale
The level of detail and the amount of area covered on a map.
What is the advantage of a map which shows only a small portion of Earth’s surface like a neighborhood that is, a large scale map?
It shows more detail.
What advantage does a map which shows the entire globe, a small scale map have?
It covers more area
When geographers convert the round off to a flat map, that use a projection. All projections have some distortion only the globe has none. List the four things that technically become distorted and various projections and explain the distortion.
Shape, distance, relative size, and direction
What place is the designated at 0 degrees longitude?
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
What is the name of the line drawn at 0 degrees longitude?
Prime meridian
What is the name for the line drawn at 0 degrees latitude?
Equator
How is a degree of longitude or latitude for their subdivided?
Minutes and seconds
How many degrees of longitude do you need to travel across to pass through one hour of time or one time zone?
15 degrees
How many time zones are there?
24
Using an outside source find out which country first adopted time zones and that occurred.
New Zealand, November 2, 1868
What is the longitude of the International Date Line?
180 degrees
Define remote sensing.
The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods.
List Several things that geographers can map using remotely sensed data.
The changing distribution of Agriculture, drought, and sprawl.
Geographers use in GIS, geographic information to store layers of data. Give examples of types of data stored in a single layer.
Countries, bodies of water, roads, and names of places
Explain and mash up in relation to geography and GIS.
Overlaying data one source on top of another mapping services
Define toponym.
A name given to a place on earth.
Identify four ways in which places can receive names
Person, religion, ancient history, and origin of settlers.
Define site
Second way geographers describe the location of a place.
List site characteristics
Climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation.
Humans actions can_______ the characteristics of a site.
Modify
Define situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
What role do familiar places have an understanding situation of unfamiliar places?
Comparing to find the desired location
A region is an_____ of______ defined by one or more__________.
Area, Earth, distinctive characteristics
One contemporary current approach to studying the cultural landscape is called the Regional Studies approach. What do geographers who adopt this view believe regarding regions?
Characteristics are integrated
What is a formal region also called, its definition, and an example?
Uniform region, an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics, Montana
What is a functional region also called, its definition, and an example?
Nodal region, an area organized around a node or focal point, TV station
What is a vernacular region also called, its definition, and an example?
Perceptual region an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity, a cultural map of the south
What two meanings of culture did you go for study?
To care about to adore or worship something, as in modern word cult. To take care of to nurse or look after something as in the modern word cultivate.
Define globalization
The force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
How was the recession that began in 2008 an example of globalization?
There was a web of falling demand and lack of credit.
In what ways is globalization of culture of manifested in landscape? Provide an example
Fast food, service stations,
In what ways has the communications revolution played a role in globalization?
It makes the world more connected and diverse, easier communication.
Space is the _________ or interval __________ two objects.
Physical gap, between
The ___________ of a feature in ___________ is known as its distribution.
arrangement, space
Define density
The frequency with which something occurs in space.
The way in which a feature is spread over space is known as concentration. What are the opposite ends of the spectrum of concentration?
a. Clustered- if the objects in an area are close together.
b. Dispersed- if the objects in an area are far apart.
List the two different types of patterns given in the text.
Square/ grid, irregular
In what ways do ethnicity play a role in geography?
People of the same ethnicity tend to live in the same areas.
In what ways do gender play a role in geography?
Males usually live where they can commute to work easily. Females usually love where they can commute to work and to the kids school.
In what ways do sexual orientation play a role in geography?
People of the same sexual orientation tend to live in the same area.
Define diffusion
is the process by which a characteristic spreads across space.
Define hearth
A place from which an innovation originates.
Define relocation diffusion
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
Define hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from one key person/place to another.
Define contagious diffusion
The rapid wide spread diffusion of a characteristic through the population.
Define stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle even through a characteristic itself.
In the past, most interaction between places required what?
Physical movement of settlers, explorers, and plunders from one location to another.
Describe the phenomenon known as distance decay.
The trailing off phenomenon
What is space-time compression?
The reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place.
How has interaction between places changed? (think networks)
Through a chain of communication that connects places we know more information and can receive it easier.
Give some examples of things that retard information among groups.
Culture, languages, and traditions
Global culture and economy are increasingly centered in the 3 core (hearth) regions of:
North America, Western Europe, and Japan
What are the three major reasons for these three areas being hearths?
a.Have advanced technology access.
b.Has capitals to invest in new activities.
c.Has wealth to purchase goods and services.
Explain why the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources.
Uneven development in the world because the outer edge countries do not have transnational corruptions.
What are two major misuses of resources geographers observe?
We use scarce resources like petroleum, natural gas, and coal. We destroy other resources through pollution of air, water, and soil.
Define sustainabillity
The use of earths renewable and nonrenewable resources in ways that don’t constrain resource use in the future.
Explain two major criticisms about sustainability.
Using all of productive land leaving none left for future growth and human activities doesn’t exceed earth’s capacity.
What are the 5 types of climates geographers identify?
Tropical, dry, warm,cool, and polar.
In what way does climate influence human activities?
The production of food
Why are human geographers interested in ecosystems involving interaction of humans with the biosphere and abiotic spheres?
Organisms interact with both spheres.
What are the two major problems with which geographers are concerned as far as soil is concerned?
Erosion and loss of nutrients.
Categories: Geography