AP Human Geography Chapter 13: Urban Patterns Test

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The area of the city where retail and office activities historically were clustered was the
central business district.
European CBDs are similar to those in North America because they both contain
retail and office activities.
Retail activities which tend to concentrate in the CBD include those which have
service for office workers.
The CBD attracts offices primarily because of its
high accessibility.
Land values are high in the CBD primarily because of
competition for limited space.
As a result of high land costs, the American CBD is characterized by
construction of skyscrapers.
The Central Business District is
attractive to consumer and business services for its accessibility.
less important for retail because of changing shopping habits.
What activity tends to locate on the street-level floor of a skyscraper in a typical North American CBD?
Retail
A land use typically excluded from a North American CBD is
industrial.
An example of the “vertical geography” of a CBD is
a barber shop on the bottom floor of a building, an accounting firm occupying the middle floor, and a group of condos on the top floor.
The zone in transition in U.S. cities typically contains which of the following?
Warehouses
Gentrified buildings
Public housing
According to the concentric zone model, a city develops in a series of
rings.
Chicago is a good location in which to develop urban models because it is located
on a flat prairie.
According to the sector model, the best housing is located in
a corridor from downtown to the edge of the city.
According to the multiple nuclei model, an airport is likely to attract nearby
industries.
Social area analysis attempts to explain
the distribution of different types of people in an urban area.
The multiple nuclei theory best explains why different neighborhoods of a city attract people of different
ethnic origin.
All three models of urban structure
help explain where different types of people live in an urban area.
help explain why people live where they do in cities.
depend on the use of data, like that of the US Census.
Higher income people tend to live near the center of the city in all but which of the following regions?
North America
A key piece of information that marketing geographers use to create segments is
multiple nuclei maps, obtained through the use of social area analysis.
socio-economic data from the census.
Ramshackle houses on the periphery of cities in less developed countries are known as
squatter settlements.
Compared to the United States, poor families in European cities are more likely to be
clustered in suburbs.
The wide boulevards built in cities in less developed countries were most likely built during what era?
Colonial
When the models of urban structure developed in Chicago are applied to Rio de Janeiro, one conclusion is that
the poorest people are located in different areas.
The process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment, is
filtering.
Housing deterioration can occur when
the rent a landlord collects becomes less than the needed maintenance costs.
banks engage in redlining to ensure money isn’t lent in a particular area.
A process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements is
redlining.
Public housing is
low-income government-owned housing.
Gentrification
A) stagnates the change in a city’s ethnic patterns.
B) allows lower income families to remain in their homes through public subsidies.
C) occurs because lower income families are no longer attracted to deteriorated housing.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class is
gentrification.
According to U.S. law, when a family is forced by a city to relocate
moving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government.
The underclass is characterized in part by high rates of
drug addiction.
U.S. inner cities face fiscal problems because
low-income people are concentrated there.
In U.S. cities, the underclass is
clustered in inner-city neighborhoods.
Compared to whites, African Americans in U.S. cities are more likely to be
clustered in inner-city neighborhoods.
To deal with the financial problems in some areas of the cities, American city governments
reduce services.
A recent change in the density gradient has been
a reduction in the differences in densities found within an urban area.
Compared to the United Kingdom, the amount of sprawl in the United States is
greater.
Because so few people live in the CBD, urban areas are characterized by a high degree of
commuting.
The process of legally adding land area to a city in the United States is
annexation.
The city plus its surrounding built-up suburbs is the
urbanized area.
In the United States, which of the following definitions of a city covers the largest land area?
Metropolitan statistical area
Metropolitan Statistical Areas
have populations of at least 50,000.
Megalopolis refers to
adjacent, overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
Sprawl is the
development of new housing sites not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
British cities are surrounded by open space known as
greenbelts.
Public transportation is better suited for commuting to the CBD primarily because
each traveler takes up less space.
A council of government
can include consolidations of city and county government and federations.
is used for planning that various local governments cannot logically do.
The purpose of busing in many U.S. suburbs is to
promote racially integrated schools.
The corridor that stretches from Boston to Washington DC, called Megalopolis
was named by geographer Jean Gottmann.
A legal form of segregation in U.S. cities is achieved through
zoning.
People are attracted to suburbs in part because suburbs are characterized by
private land surrounding the house.
The largest percentage of the U.S. population lives in
suburbs.
The density gradient
usually shows a diminishing number of houses per unit of land as the distance from the city center increases.
shows a gap in center cities due to the changing pattern of where people live in recent years
now shows a reduction in the extremes of density between inner and outer areas found within cities.
The largest number of trips are made for
work.
Public transportation
declined from 23 billion trips per year in 1940 to 10 billion in 2006.
The U.S. government has encouraged the use of cars in part by
building interstate highways.
Compared to the private automobile, public transportation offers more
energy efficiency.
The major exception to the decline in public transit is (the)
rapid transit.
Public transit is more extensive in Western European cities than in the United States primarily because
European governments subsidize public transit.
In recent years, urban residents are more likely to shop in
suburban malls.
The attractions of shopping malls include all but which of the following?
Walking distance from homes
Factories have moved to suburban locations in part because of
access to main highways.
Some employees of suburban businesses may suffer hardships because they do not
own automobiles.
In the United States, a city plus its surrounding built-up suburbs is known as
an urbanized area.
A central city and its contiguous built-up suburbs is called a metropolitan statistical area.
False
According to Louis Wirth, cities differ from rural areas in being larger, more dense, and more socially homogeneous.
False
The basic building block for MSAs is the county, because of the ease of obtaining data.
True
Most urban residents in the United States live in central cities rather than suburbs.
False
Land is more intensively used in the center of the city than elsewhere.
True
Public housing comprises a large percentage of housing in the United Kingdom but only a small percentage in the United States.Public housing comprises a large percentage of housing in the United Kingdom but only a small percentage in the United States.
True
None of the world’s ten most populous urban areas is located in Europe.
True
The density gradient in American and European cities is getting flatter.
True
Relatively wealthy individuals live in the center of most cities in the world outside of North America.
True
Suburban sprawl has resulted in the loss of most of the prime agricultural land in the United States.
False
Cities in less developed countries have eliminated most signs of European colonial rule.
False
While public transportation ridership has declined in the United States, a number of cities have invested in new public transportation systems.
True
The three models of urban structure help to explain where people live in U.S. cities but not in European cities.
False
Urban population worldwide is projected to exceed rural settlement population for the first time in 2008.
True
Rural settlements outside European cities have been converted to weekend homes, because they are no longer needed for agriculture.
True
The supply of land for new housing is more severely restricted outside European cities than U.S. cities.
True
In the United States, a city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is known as an urbanized area.
True
Historically, the world’s largest cities generally were in more developed countries.
True
The three eras of development of cities in many less developed countries were pre-Columbian, pre-Colonial, and independence.
False
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