AP Human Geography: Chapter 2 Vocab Quiz

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Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Child Dependency Ratio
Ratio of the population aged 0-14, to the population aged 15-64. Presented as dependents per 100 persons of working age.
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
Degenerative Diseases
Diseases that cause further breakdown in body cells, tissues, and organs as they progress
Demographic Transitions
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates, and low rate of NIR to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, and low NIRs, and a higher total population
Demography
Scientific study of human populations.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
Expansive Population Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Genetic Diseases
Those diseases (malfunctions) that result from abnormalities in chromosomes or DNA, and are inherited.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
Infectous Disease
Are diseases that can be spread and are caused by a pathogen – chicken pox, malaria
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio
The fraction of people over age 60 to younger working-age adults (ages 15 to 59). This ratio is expected to rise dramatically as the baby boomers retire.
One-Child Policy
China’s effort, beginning in 1979, to control population growth; incentives such as education benefits, child care, and housing are offered to couples who limit their families to one child.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population Density
A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.
Population Distribution
Where people live in a country, weather crowded together in cities or spread out across the countryside.
Population Explosion
The rapid growth of the world’s human population during the past century, attended by ever- shorter doubling times and sccelerating rates of increase.
Population Pyrimid
Population Pyrimid
Picture diagram that shows various age groups in a population if it is growing, the population looks like a pyramid
Restrictive Population Policy
Laws which discourage or punish people for having large families. Trying to lower the NIR
Stationary Population Level (SPL)
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
When the birth rate equals the death rate
Stage 1
Low Growth. CBR & CDR vary severely from year to year. NIR was zero. No contemporary countries are in this stage.
Stage 2
High Growth. CDR plummets, while CBR remains the same as stage 1. High NIR. Slows slightly through this stage. Leads to wealth, and a healthier environment.
Stage 3
Moderate Growth. CBR sharply drops. CDR continues to fall. NIR is more modest.

Fewer children. People live in cities.

Stage 4
Low Growth. CBR=CDR
Zero Population Growth.
Caused by change in social customs.
Total population is much larger than a country in stage 1.
Stage 5
Categories: Geography