AP human geography: Unit 1

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absolute location
position of an object on the global grid (latitude/longitude)
focused on the English culture
azimuthal projection
map that maintains direction, but distorts other properties
cardinal directions
North, South, East and West
map that uses proportionality to show a particular variable
process of mapmaking
choropleth thematic map
map that shows a pattern of a variable by using various colors/degrees of shading
cognitive map
map drawn from memory
conformal projection
map that maintains shape but distorts other properties
cultural ecology
study of human-environment interaction
data aggregation
size of geographic units being represented on a map
distance decay
pattern in which the interaction between two places declines as the distance between the two places increases
necessary error resulting from trying to portray the earth on a flat map
dot density map
thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable
equal-are projection
map that maintains area, but distorts other properties
equidistant projection
map that maintains distance, but distorts other properties
formal region
region composed of areas that have a common cultural/physical feature
4 main properties of a map
shape (geometric shapes)
size (space taken up)
distance (represented distance between 2 points)
direction (degree of accuracy with cardinal directions)
friction of distance
degree to which distance interferes with some interaction
functional region
group of places linked together by some influence (from a central place)
geographic information system (GIS)
computer program that stores geographic data and produces map to show the data
geographic model
simplified version of what is on the earth
global positioning system (GPS)
system of satellites used to determine exact location on the earth
great circles
cicles formed on the surface of the earth by plane routes. (the arc is the shortest distance between 2 points)
greenwich mean time (GMT)
baseline for time zones around the world
human-environment interaction
human’s impact on the environment and the environment’s impact on humans
human geography
branch of geography studying the reason behind the location/interactions of humans on the earth
intermediate directions
northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast
isoline thematic map
map displaying lines that connect points of equal value
lines of latitude
north-south from equator
lines of longitude
east-west of prime meridian
2-D model of the earth
map scale
relationship between distance on the map and the actual measurement in the real world
mercator projection
map showing shapes but drastically distorting size
movement on the face of the earth of things
place from where diffusion of something happens
perceptual region
region whose boundaries are determined by beliefs
gall-peters projection
shows size, but not shape
physical geography
branch of geography that has to do with things of the earth (soil/climate/plants/etc.)
physical/cultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual “stamp”
5 themes of geography
location (where something is)
human-environment interaction (humans-environment)
region (spatial units that share some characteristics)
place(the attributes of a spot)
movement (how things move)
primary data
data collected directly from someone
proportional-symbol thematic map
map that uses a symbol to display the frequency of a variable
reference map
map showing common features
places having similar characteristics
relative directions
common directions (up, down, left, right)
relative location
location of a place/object in relation to other places/objects
remote sensing
technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed
robinson projection
map with slight distortions to all four properties, not just one
secondary data
data gathered from someone who got it from the geographer
sense of place
person’s perception of that place
cartographers process of eliminating unnecessary details on a map
internal physical/cultural characteristics of a place
location of a place relative to the physical/cultural characteristics around it
space-time compression
increasing sense of accessibility and connectivity that seems to be bringing humans in distance places closer together
spatial interaction
process in which goods, ideas, information and people move among places
spatial perspective
outlook through which geographers identify, explain and predict the human/physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of different spaces
thematic map
map that zeroes in on one feature
Categories: Geography