AP Human Geography Unit 1 Vocabulary

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Fieldwork
the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
Human Geography
the study of how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, religion, and the world
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact; transcends state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Physical Geography
one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes and location of the Earth’s natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography
Medical Geography
the study of health and disease within a geographic context and geographical perspective; looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distribution of diseases
Pandemic
an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
Epidemic
regional outbreak of a disease
Five themes of geography
location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, regions
Location
the geographical situation of people and things
Human-environment interaction
how humans and the environment affect each other
Region
groups of places that share similar characteristics
Place
uniqueness of a location
Sense of Place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion
Movement
the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
Distance
measurement of the physical space between two places
Accessibility
the degree of ease with which it was possible to reach a certain location from other locations
Connectivity
the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
Landscape
the overall appearance of an area
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Sequent occupance
the sequential imprints of occupance, whose impacts are layered one on top of the other, each layer having some impact on the other
Cartography
the art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design
Reference Map
a type of map that shows locations of places ad geographic features
Thematic Map
a type of map that tells a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution, or its movement; its purpose is to tell a story
Absolute Location
a latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location)
Global Positioning System
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographical features
Relative Location
location described by landmarks, time, direction, or distance from one place to another
Mental Map
a map drawn from memory and perspective
Activity Space
the places we routinely travel to in our rounds of daily activity
Generalized Map
a map meant to help the person see general trends or patterns in the map
Remote Sensing
gathers data at a distance from the earth’s surface by satellites and aircraft; the data that shows the major areas of impact and can take photos of major damage; helps geographers understand physical and human geography of a place and the data can be incorporated into a map
Geographic Information Systems
integrates (gathering) hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically references information; allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, charts
Rescale
to involve players at other scales and create a global outcry of support for their position
Formal Region
share cultural or physical traits
Functional Region
defined by a particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual Region
intellectual constructs designed to help understand the nature and distribution of phenomena in human geography
Culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
Culture Trait
a single element of normal practice in a culture (ex. turban)
Culture Complex
a related set of cultural traits
Culture Hearth
place of origin of a major culture
Independence Invention
the term for a trait with many cultures that developed independent of each other
Cultural Diffusion
the expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
Time-Distance Decay
the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Cultural Barrier
prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas, or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture
Expansion Diffusion
when an idea or innovation spreads outward from the hearth
Contagious Diffusion
spreads adjacently from the hearth
Hierarchical Diffusion
spreads to most linked people or places first (ex. fashion)
Stimulus Diffusion
idea promotes a local experiment or change in the way people do things (ex. greek yogurt)
Relocation Diffusion
movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant locale (ex. colonization)
Environmental Determinism
the belief that mainly the environment shapes the culture of an area
Possibilism
the belief that people shape the culture of an area,
Cultural Ecology
the idea that culture is shaped by the way we interact and treat our environment
Political Ecology
the study of the relationships between political, economic, and social factors with environmental issues and changes
Categories: Geography