AP Human Geography unit 3 migration

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The movement of people from one place to another with the intention of settling in a new location

Act of entering a country

Act of leaving ones country
Push factor
Conditions that help a migrant decide to leave (forced)
Pull factor
Conditions that help a migrant attract to a location (voluntary)
Intervening obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intervening opportunity
Presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of site farther away
Ravensteins laws of migration
Predicted flow of migrants
1.Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance
3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Cyclic movement
Shorter regular trips away from home for defined amounts of time
Periodic movement
Pull factor; short term “seasonal” migration
Seasonal pastoral farming

Def- A system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock between lowland and highland pastures according to the seasonal availability of pastures (seasonal)

Step migration
Short moves in stages
Chain migration
Migration of people to specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
A person flees across boundary lines
Displaced person
A migration when a person is forced to leave but stays within the boundary of their own country
Guest workers
Migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides

– has short term visas
– send remittances to home country
– France has many from Algeria (N. Africa)
– Germany has many from Turkey
– US has a lot from Mexico

Major Waves of Global Migration
1. Europe to Americas 1500-1830s
-Spanish, Portuguese, English

2. Africa to Americas (1500-1860)
Diaspora= Scattering of culture
12 million out of Africa

3. United Kingdom to Australia and New Zealand (1770s-1850s)

4. India to East Africa and South East Asia (1840-1900)
Indian Diaspora

5. China to South East Asia (1870-1920)

6. Eastern US to Western US (1830-1920)
Manifest density- God told people to populate country and Christianize natives

7. Western Russia to Eastern Russia (1870-1990)
Communists trying to expand territory

8. LDCs to MDCs ( present)

Communism in Russia
Western Europe= good side
Eastern Europe= bad side

Push and pull factors

Diaspora to Zionism
Diaspora= Jews living outside of Israel, scattering of culture
a movement for (originally) the re-establishment and (now) the development and protection of a Jewish nation in what is now Israel. It was established as a political organization in 1897 under Theodor Herzl, and was later led by Chaim Weizmann.
Distance decay
A function that represents the way that some entity or its influence decays with distance from its ego gwithdistance from its geographical location.
Gravity model (goes with distance decay)
model that is used to account for a wide variety of flow patterns in human/economic systems, based on Newton’s gravity equation which defines gravity or the flow potential (between two sites or locations) as directly proportional to the product of their masses (or size) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: gravity = (mass × mass) ÷ distance2
Brain drain. Why do some countries accuse united state of encouraging the brain drain?
Smart people migrate to other country (Albert Einstein)

The United States immigration laws give preference to skilled and talented individuals.

Counter urbanization
de-urbanization is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas
Migration Transition Model
Stage 1= premodern society
– unlikely to migrate permanently to new location

Stage 2= Early Transition Society
-Rural to Urban is high
– Global Migration is at its highest for countries in stage 2

Stage 3= Late Transitional Model
– Rural to Urban plateaus
– Urban to Urban goes up dramatically
– Intra urban migration is high
– urban suburban migration is high

Stage 4= Advanced Society
– inter urban migration is high
– intra urban migration is high
– Urban suburban migration is high

Stage 5= Super advanced Society
-almost all migration stagnates as the age of the population prevents too much movement

Inter urban
Between cities
Intra urban
Urban (within cities)
Brain Drain
Large scale emigration by talented people
(Albert Einstein)
Vietnamese boat people
Thailand to India to France to US

Step migration

Def- the Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union (trying to spread Russian culture throughout the S.U.)

Ex- making sure all of the S.U. followed Russian culture, language, religion, etc.
-real time example: Georgia- breakawa

Examples of push factors
War/safety, unemployment, gov corruption, environment, climate
Examples of pull factors
Freedoms, economic opportunity, job prospect, family, cultural ties,
Migration stream
Path one takes along the way
Categories: Geography