AP Human Geography Unit One

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Absolute location
Exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates (example longitude and latitude.
Cartography
art of mapmaking
circular pattern
objects that circle another object; also known as centralized pattern.
cultural landscape
products of interactions between humans and their enviroments.
Daylights Saving Time
Established for workers to get another hour of light by pushing the clock one hour ahead in spring.
Distortion
Misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure
enviromental geography
a field that centers on the intereactions of human and physical geography.
Equator
an immanginary line that lies exactly half-way between the North and South Poles
Eratosthenes
A Greek scholar that accurately calculated the circumference of the Earth.
Formal Region
is an area that has striking similarites in terms of one or a few physical and culture features. (Ex: State or a Provience)
Functional Region
Are organized around core, or nodes. Visually, the space can be seen as having interdependent parts that all operates together and connect, but with a center that directs that movements and characteristics of non-central parts; a region defined by the particular set of activities or intereactions that occur within it.
GIS (geographic information system)
is a computer system that stores, captures, analyzes, and display data.
Globalization
the expansion of economic, potitical and cultural activites to the point that they reach and have impact on many areas of the world.
Greenwich Mean Time
Standard time at the prime meridian
GPS (global postitioning system)
uses a series of staellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on Earth
Grid Pattern
reflects a rectangular system of land survey adopted in huch of the country under the Ordinance of 1785 (Ex: the midsection of the US in a airplane.)
Hecataeus
lived in the late 6th and 5th centuries B.C.E, created a map that was accurate around Greece but other areas were much more vague.
Human Geography
focuses on people and the way they intereact with their natural enviroment.
Idris
An Arab geographer who worked for the King of Sicily to collect geographical information into a remarkabley accurate representation of the world.
Kant, Immanuel
German philosopher and geographer defined geography as the study of interrelated spatial patterns- the description and explanation of differences and similarities between one region and another.
Landscapes
the overall appearance of an area that is shpaed by both human and natural influences
Latitude
Distance north or south of the equator
Linear pattern
If the pattern is along striaght lines, like rivers, streets, or railroad tracks.
local time
The official time for a region, depending on where it is located.
Location
the position of something on Earth’s surface.
Longitude
a numbering system that calculates distance east and west of the prime meridian
Marsh, George Perkins
American geographer that worte Man vs. Nature and had this famous message: “Conserve the Earth, or live to pay the siastrous consequences.”
Mercator projection
Invented by Flemish cartograhper in 1569 for a specific purpose- navigating ships across the Alantic Ocean between Europe and the Americas. Mostly know by the huge distortion of Antartica and Greenland
meridian
is an arc drawn between the North and South Pole that measures longitude.
multi-national corporations
have centers of operation in many parts of the world. Examples would be Coca-Cola, Disney, and McDonald.
parallel
is a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and they measure latitude.
pattern
the arrangement of objects on earth’s surface in relationship to one another.
Perceptual region
Also know as vernacular region. They are places that people believe to exist as a part of their cultural identity. They reflect feelings and images more than any objective reality, such as physical features. Example would be that despite Korea peninsula is divide into two formal regions, the poeple of the area have a long history as being called Koreans.
periphery
region’s margins
Peters Projection
The main focus of the map was keeping the land masses equal in area and as a result in is resulted the shapes are distorted.
place
a specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinquish if form other points.
physical geography
Focuses on the natural enviroment itself. Examples would be mountian that they would study.
physical site characteristics
They include climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation.
prime meridian
is located at the observatory in Greenwich, England at 0 degrees.
Ptomely
A Greek scholar that recalculated the Earth’s circumference of the earth to be much smaller and was wrong. Wrote the book Guide to Geography that include many rough maps of land masses and bodies of water. Also invented a global grid system that was a forerunner to our modern system of longitude and latitude.
random pattern
Only exists if no regular distribution can be seen.
regionalization
the organization of earth’s surface into distinct areas that are viewed as differenct from other areas.
Robinson projection
Does not maintain accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each. Tries to correct distortion in the high noth and south latitudes by curving these areas inward on the papers. Curves the merideans to avoid extremes, but thereby strench the poles into long lines. Used in most classrooms.
Sauer, Carl
He argured that cultural landscapres should be the main focus of geographic study. His study is basic to enviromental geography.
scale
The between the size of an object or distance between object on a map and the size of the actual object or distance on Earth’s surface.
site
The physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place.
situation
Relative location, spots relative to other human and physical features on the landscape.
solar time
Based on the postition of the sun in the sky as the day progresses.
space
The physical gap or distances between two objects.
space-time compression
To describe the changes that rapid connections among palces and regions have brought.
Spatial organization
The location of places, people,and events, and the connections among places and landscapes.
Spatial perspective
That they (geographers) notice patterns of both natural and human enviroments, distributions of people, and locations of all kinds of objects.
Time Zone
Is a region that has adopted the same standard time.
topography
The natural land surface.
toponym
Names that distinguish them from others.
U.S. Cenus Bereau
Every ten years since 1970, the U.S. governmetn has collected inofrmation about the country’s inhabitants and compiled a census reports. One of the biggest employers of geographers in the U.S.
“the why of where”
Explanations for why a spatial patterns occurs.
Categories: Geography