AP Human Geography Vocabulary Chapter 5

Published by admin on

Accent
a way of pronouncing words that indicates the place of origin of social background of the speaker
Anatolian Hypothesis
proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia
Creole
a person of mixed black or European descent, especially in the Caribbean
Denglish
a blend of German and English
Dialect
regional variation of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Ebonics
dialect spoken by some African-Americans
Extinct Language
language once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
Franglais
a term used by French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of Francais and Anglais
Germanic Languages
a branch of the Indo-European languages containing, English, German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian, the Scandinavian languages, and Gothic
Ideogram
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather that a specific sound, as is the case with the letters in English
Indo-European
of or relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India
Isogloss
boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate
Nostratic Hypothesis
a hypothesized family of languages ancestral to several of the established language families of Eurasia and northern Africa and including in some classifications as the Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Kartvelian, Dravidain, and Afro-Asiatic languages
Isolated Language
language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any family
Kurgan Hypothesis
the Proto-Indo-European language diffused from modern day Ukraine through conquest
Language
system of communication through the use of speech, collection of sounds and understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
Language Branch
collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago, differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branch derived from the same family
Language Family
collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language Group
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in a relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Lingua Franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Literary Tradition
a language that is written as well as spoken
Logogram
a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems
Monolingual
speaking only one language
Bilingual
speaking two languages fluently
Multi-linguality
the use of more than two languages
National Language
a language that has some connection with people and the territory they occupy
Nostratic
a hypothetical phylum of languages of which the principal members are the Indo-European, Semitic, Altaic, and Dravidian families
Official Language
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Orthography
the conventional spelling system of a language
Pidgin
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of two different languages
Polyglot
knowing or using several languages
Proto-Indo-European
the unrecorded language from which all Indo-European languages are hypothesized to derive
Received Pronunciation
the standard form of British English pronunciation, based on educated speech in southern England
Romance Languages
group of related languages all derived from Vulgar Latin within historical times and forming a subgroup of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family
Slang
a type of language that consists of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people
Slavic Languages
a branch of the Indo-European family of languages, usually divided into the East Slavic, West Slavic, and South Slavic
Spanglish
combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
Standard Language
the form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
Subfamilies
a subdivision of a group
Syntax
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language
Toponym
a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature
Trade Language
a restructured language used especially in commercial communication
Vernacular
the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region
Vocabulary
the body of words used in a particular language
Vulgar Latin
informal Latin of classical times
Categories: Geography