BYU GEO 120 Exam 3

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Alluvial Fan
Fan shaped deposits of sediments dropped by streams flowing out of the mountains
A fine, wind-deposited sediment that makes fertile soil but is very vulnerable to water erosion.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Formed in 2001, a geopolitical group composed of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan that focuses on common security threats and works to enhance economic cooperation and cultural exchange in Central Asia.
Semiarid grasslands found in many parts of the world. Grasses are usually shorter and less dense in steppes than in prairies.
Anthropogenic Landscape
A landscape heavily transformed by human agency.
Autonomous Region
In the context of China, provinces that have been granted a certain degree of political and cultural autonomy, or freedom from centralized authority, due to the fact that the contain large numbers of non-Han Chinese people. Critics contend that they have little true autonomy.
China Proper
The eastern half of the country of China, where Han Chinese are the dominant ethnic group. The vast majority of China’s population is located in China Proper.
An economic system in which the state has minimal involvement and in which market forces largely guide economic activity.
Special Economic Zones
Relatively small districts in China that have been fully opened to global capitalism.
A wide variety of tribal regions based on the worship of nature’s spirits and human ancestors.
Domino Theory
A U.S. geopolitical policy of the 1970s that stemmed from the assumption that if Vietnam fell to the Communists, the rest of Southeast Asia would soon follow.
A city and port that specializes in transshipment of goods.
Khmer Rouge
Literally, “Red (or Communist) Cambodians,” the left-wing insurgent group that overthrew the royal Cambodian government in 1975 and subsequently created one of the most brutal political systems the world has ever seen.
What are some environmental disasters that have happened in Central Asia?
1. Destruction of the Aral Sea
2. Desertification
Describe the migration issues in China and Russia
1. China – Han Chinese are moving into Tibet and and Xinjiang, turn native locals into minorities.
2. Russia & Soviet areas of Central Asia – Russian speakers are are moving out, upsetting the demographics.
Religious tensions in western Central Asia
1. Radical Islamic fundamentalism is a potent force in Afghanistan. 2. Central Asian leaders use the threat of religiously inspired violence to maintain repressive and anti-democratci policies, (even though the non-radical forms of Islam are more prevalent.)
Role of Oil in Central Asia
Economies are opening up to global connections.
However, since there is little of other foreign investment, the economies will continue to struggle for a while.
Pollution in China
The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has produced hazardous pollution in major cities. Much of the Chinese countryside suffers from soil erosion and desertification.
Population demographics in Japan
Birth rates in recent decades has plummeted. Now facing a population decline that will put severe pressure on the economy, it is unclear how Japan will meet the upcoming challenges.
Population demographics in China
the biggest demographic challenge is the movement of people from the interior to the coast, and from rural villages to rapidly growing cities.
East Asian cultural and historical bonds/current globalizaton
1. China has had a large influence in East Asia because, at one time or another, it has covered the entire region (except Japan).
2. The most prosperous parts of East Asia have been developing cultural globalization, particularly features from Europe and the US.
East Asia growth since WWII
Except for North Kores, all East Asian countries have expereince major economic growth since the end of WWII. East Asia massively exports and imports from all other major areas of the economy.
a. Is being populated by Han Chinese, the native are becoming the minority.
Shapes of states
a state the possess a circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the center to any point on the boundary exhibits little variation.
Shapes of states
Elongated State
a state whose territory is decidedly long, its length is at least six times greater than its average width. Each end of the country was very different culturally.
Shapes of states
Protruded state
exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory.
® The tail that leads away, may have other cultures/characteristics. The economy will be different because they have access to different resources
Shapes of states Fragmented
Consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole. Individual parts may be isolated from each other by the land area of other states or international waters. Very separated, difficult to regulate, different languages. Philippines
Which of the following statements is false?

 T Relations with Russia strained bc of longstanding dispute over the Kurile islands closest to Japan

 T Relations with China difficult because of memories of Japanese behavior during WWII

T Population of Japan is aging, thereby creating labor shortage

T Japanese tourists, seeing how those in the West live, are now less satisfied with life in Japan

F Japan has numerous ethnic minorities that create significant internal strife

Different external influences in central Asia
a. Russia, US, China, Iran, Pakistan and India contend for power in the region.
b. Not a significant participant in global trade, little foreign investment
East Asia economic growth since WWII
Major growth, except in North Korea
North and South Korea
a. Russia and US split the country after WWII. North invaded South, the war ended in a stalemate.
b. South Korea tried to be peaceful with North, but NK was hostile.
c. Currently North Korea is a poor country while South Korea prospers
China and its population
a. One child rule
b. Major movement from rural to urban, from inland to coastal to take advantage
Azerbaijan Oil – What routes are rejected and why?

1. Iran – US (Pres Clinton) imposed sanctions on companies doing business in Iranian sector


2. Thru Iran and Turkey – US would not buy it


3. Az/Turkemnistan/Afghanistan/Pakistan – Turkmenistan disputed ownership of the oil.


4. Russia – Too close to Chechnya

Azerbaijan Oil-
What route accepted?
Through Azerbaijan, Georgia and then Turkey. Although there were still problems in Georgia, is was the easiest route.
Warming up Mongolia
Mongolia is very cold in the winter. Since the Soviet Union fell, Mongolia has had no financial backing or governmental assistance. It is a very rural, developing country. They have traditionally heated with wood and coal. They are using hay for insulation. Gov’t tried to help build houses. Infrared video of power plant showed heat leaks, wasted energy.
Categories: Geography