BYU GEO101 Exam 1

What is Geography?
The study of space and place. The study of the WHY of the WHERE
What do geographers study?
– Where things are located on the earth’s crust
– Why things are located in certain places
– How places differ from one another
– How people interact with the environment
Two principle branches of Geography
Physical and Human
Physical Geography focuses on…
Climates, landforms, vegetation, soils, and water. Forecast weather, manage land and water resources, and analyze and plan for forests, rangelands and wetlands.
Human Geography focuses on…
how people and their activities are distributed in space and how they use space on earth’s surface. Urban and regional planning, transportation and tourism.
Earth’s Four Spheres
– Atmosphere
– Biospere
– Hydrosphere
– Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Water realm of the earth
+ Ocean, rivers, etc
– Drought, flood
Lithosphere
Solid mineral realm, crust plus uppermost part of earth’s mantle
+ rock, soil
– volcanic activity, earthquakes
Biosphere

Plants and animals

+ organic materials that contribute to healthy earth

– endangered species, habitat loss, deforestation

– framentation of species rapidly diminishes numbers

Atmosphere
Envelope of gases that encircle the earth
+ oxygen
– Global warming, inversion
What is the name of the earth’s shape?
Oblate spheroid
Diameter of the earth
Pole to pole 7,900
Equator 7927
First person to use word Geography
Erasthenes.
-devised latitude and longitude
-calculated earth’s tilt relative to sun (23.5 degrees)
-devised leap year
– calculated earth’s circumference
Latitude
Like the lines of a ladder.
Measures north-south from the equator.
Also called parallels
about 69 miles per degree
Goes to 90 degrees
Longitude
Measures east-west. Prime Meridian is 0 degrees
Also called meridians.
Up to 180 degrees
Seven Parallels
Equator
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
Arctic Circle
Anarctic Circle
North Pole
South Pole
Equator
Starting point for measuring lattitude
Exactly midway between the poles
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
“The Tropics”
-23.5 degrees north and south from the equator
-North of the Tropic of Cancer, the sun will never be directly over your head
-Vertical rays of the sun are between the Tropics because the sun is high all year round
Meridians
Prime meridian and International Dateline.
They go from pole to pole
Int’l dateline opposite the prime meridian
Location of Prime Meridian
Greenwich, England
How long is a calendar day?
48 hours
Great Circle
Any line that divides the planet into two equal halves -Equator -Circle of illumination -Prime meridian if combined with int’l dateline
Rotation of the Earth
The earth makes one rotation on its axis every 24 hours (it rotates eastward on its axis)
Revolution of the Earth
Earth makes one revolution around the sun every 364.25 days
Equinox
March 21, September 21
-Suns rays are on the equator
-12 hour day and 12 hour night over the whole earth.
Solstice
June 21, December 21
Analemma
Graph that shows vertical rays for every day of the year (similar to figure 8)
Earth’s orbit is more _________ than ________
oval, circular
Aphelion
Point where planet is farthest from the sun.
July 4th – 94.5 million miles from the sun
Ang layo
Perihelion
Point when earth is closest to the sun
-Jan 3rd, 91.5 million miles
Time zones
Every time zone is 15 degrees wide (at equator)
Earth rotates 15 degrees every hour
The middle of every zone is based on 15 degrees longitude
Antipode
Opposite.
Reverse the latitude – north becomes south
Subtract longitude from 180
Rays of the sun on equator
March 21 and September 21
Bishop Rock Lighthouse
Lighthouse that was built after Scilly Island crash. Captian Chavel
Harrison’s Chronometer
Harrison is the clockmeter who invented the chronometer. Based on 15 degrees per longitude.
Types of maps
-General Reference
-drawn to scale
-projections
-Isolines (countour intervals)
-Remote sensing and GIS
What is included in a general reference map?
Major lakes, cities, airports
What is a type of thematic map?
-Political map
-bird migration map
-it’s a map that tells a story or history of something
What are the types of scale maps?
-Large scale, shows small area with lots of detail
-Small scale, shows large area with a little detail
What the two types of map projections?
Conformal
Equivalence
Conformal map projection
Has meridian and parallels crossing each other at right angle, just like on a globe. The farther you get away from the equator, the greater the distortion of the land area.
Equivalence map projection
Depicts accurate size of land masses, but the shape is distorted
Cylndrical map projection
similar to conformal – imagine cylinder of paper wrapped around an illuminated globe, only touching at the equator.
Plane map projection
flat paper plate, touching earth at one point.Usually the view from the arctic or antartic. The perimeter curves away, so the edges are distorted.
Conic map projection
flat paper, shape into cone, draw earth, lay flat. Most common state map. Curves at top and bottom reflect cone shape
Interrupted map projection
similar to orange peel peeled in one piece. Maintain the shape and mass. Areas of distortion are in the ocean and cut out. Looks like you cut up a globe and then laid it flat.
isoline
Contour lines, which connect points of equal value, like elevation
We use this instead of sextants
GPS. Global positioning systems. Three points can determine location within a few yeards. Uses satellites
Remote sensing
Any recording device that does not come in contact with the earth. Can determine temp of the ocean
GIS
0 Library of information that allows user to collect, retrieve, reorganize, and display geographic data from the real world. 0 Layers showing zoning, flood planes, wetlands, land cover, soils, survey control
The Hydrologic cycle
sun > Evaporation from water > transipration from plants > condensation > precipitation > Transporation/advection (clouds move from over water to over mountains > inflitration into the earth > Runoff – oversaturated earth
Hydrosphere
water realm of the earth.
Oceans have 97.2% of earths water
Glaciers 2%
Groundwater .5%
Lakes and rivers comprise .2%
Oceans by size
1 – Pacific 64 mil sq mile
2 – Atlantic 32 mil sq mile
3 – Indian 28 mil sq mile
4 – Arctic 5 mil sq mile
Longest Rivers
1. Nile
2. Amazon
3. Mississippi-Missouri
4. Yangtze
5. Ob
Largest Lakes
1. Caspian Sea
2. Lake Superior
3. Lake Victoria
4. Lake Huron
5. Lake Michigan
Local lakes/dams on Colorado River
Lake Mead and Lake Powell.
How much water does Lake Powell lose to absorption and evaporation?
600,000 acre feet per year.
How much water do US golf courses consume?
Two billion gallons every day.
A nation that destroys its _____ destroys itslef.
Soil. Teddy Roosevelt
Soil is part of earth’s __________.
Lithosphere. Earth’s crust and uppermost part of mantle.
Average depths of soil on continental surfaces.
Six inches.
What is the study of soil called?
pedology
What is soil mainly composed of?
weathered particles of rock and organic material
Soil Profile
O > A > E > B > C > R
O Horizon
Organic layer of soil.
Plant material.
Not all soils have O horizon.
A Horizon
Organic material, dark color
“Topsoil”
most plants germinate here
E Horizon
Very fine soil and minerals
B Horizon
Materials from E & A have been washed down into and collect.
“Subsoil”
C Horizon
Partially weathered or decayed, broken up bedrock, no nutrients
R Horizon
Rock. Solid Rock.
Once exposed, weathering will eventually turn it into A or O.
Regolith
Horizons O – C. (no rock horizon)
Which soil horizons are considered part of the soil?
O – B.
Five soil-forming factors
1. Parent Material
2. Climate
3. Time
4. Topography
5. Biology
Parent material in forming soil
The parent rock determines the quality of soil it become (after weathering). Ex. Quartz produces low calcium soil, grazing animals will have weak bones.
How does climate affect soil formation?
Rock breaks down more quickly in a warm humid dry environment than in a cool, dry, area. Tropical soils are very deep before you reach bedrock.
How does time affect soil formation?
New soils lack nutrients. Intermediate-aged soils are more fertile. Old soil is leached of nutrients.
It can take 1,000 years to generate an inch of soil. Tropical areas – an inch every few decades.
How does topography affect soil formation?
Flat areas have deep soils, mountain sides have shallow soils* (slopes loses soils as it gradually migrates downward.)
How does biology affect soil formation?
Burrowing activities are beneficial, allowing oxygen and water down into the ground and bedrock
Soil properties
Color
Texture
Chemistry
Soil colors
Red-iron
yellow-aluminum or sulphur
dark brown-lots of organic material
white-salt
Soil textures
Sand – largest
soil – intermediate
silt – smallest
Which soil types do not retain water?
Sand and silt.
Clay retain water, and is very thick.
What is loam?
Has substantial amounts of sand, silt and clay. Best for agriculture because it is well-drained.
The chemistry of soil
Clay particles are flat.
Negative charge.
Roots absorb ion, becomes nutrient.
Mollisols
Most fertile and productive soil order. Dominant natural vegetation is grass.
Mollisols examples
Great plains of USA, Pampas region of Argentina.
Andisols
Ash produces this very fertile soil.
Andisols example
Island of Java.
Entisols
Materials are transported in by water. Newly forming soils. not very fertile.
Entisols example
Nile river flood plains
Aridisols
Arid areas. Almost white because of salt deposits.
Aridisols example
Nevada, Arizona, Mesopotamia
Spodisols
Leached and Acidic. Pine needles make it worse. Bluberries need acidic soils.
Oxisols
Tropical rainforest environments. No nutrients on top, leached. Terrible for farming. Slash and burn agriculture to create ash.
Lithosphere
Soil, the mineral realm of the earth
Topography
surface features of the earth
Landform
topographic features. Cliffs, beach, sandbar, ocean floor, volcanoes, etc.
Geomorphology
Study of Landforms
Two kinds of relief
Elevation differences. High relief – mountain Low relief – plains
Contour lines
shows elevation difference on a map.
Uniformitarianism
“The present is the key to the past.” Observation of events taking place today shows us what has been happening for millions of years. Valid, but incomplete.
Hutton
Originator of uniformitarianism
Lyell
Populized Huttons idea of uniformitarianism
Processes that produce landforms
Volcano eruptions; fluvials (running water); Eolion (wind); Glaciation (movement transforms and pulverizes rock); weathering; mass wasting; coastal process
Aquiclude
A solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer
Aquifer
An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
Groundwater
Water located beneath the earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Runoff
The flow of water, from rain, snow melt, or other sources, over land
Loam
Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively).[
Artesian Well
A well drilled through impermeable strata to reach water capable of rising to the surface by internal hydrostatic pressure
Clay
A general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter
Moho
The boudary between the crust and the mantle, where earths rocks become much denser
Geomorphology
The study of landforms
Two kinds of relief
High Relief – Mountains
Low Relief – Plains
Asthenosphere
200 to 50 miles below the earth’s crust
Mineral
A naturally occurring substance that is solid and stable at room temperature, representable by a chemical formula
Crust
The crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle
Silicates
Oxygen and silicon
Oxides
oxygen plus other element
Sulfates
Sulfur plus another element
Halides
derives from salty minerals
Native elements
non-compound elements like gold
Categories: Geography