BYU GEO120 Exam 1

bubble economy
A highly inflated economy that cannot be sustained. Bubble economies usually reesult from rapid influx of international capital into a developing country.
centrifugal forces
Cultural and political forces – such as liinguistic minorities, separatists, and fringe groups – that pull away from and weaken an existing nation-state.
centripetal forces
Cultural and political forces – such as shared sense of history, a centralized economic structure, and the need for military security – that promote unity in a nation-state.
colonialism
formal, established (mainly historical) rule over local peoples by a larger imperialist government for the expansion of political and economic empire.
core-periphery model
A conceptualization of the world into two economic spheres. The developed countries of western Europe, North America and Japan form the dominant core, with less developed countries making up the periphery. Implicit in the mode is that the core gained its wealth at the expense of peripheral countries.
Cultural Nationalism
A Process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primary of a certain cultural system against influences (real or imagined) from another culture.
Globalization
The increasing interconnections of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic, political and cultural change.
Human Development Index
The the past three decades, the UN has tracked social development in the world’s countries through the HDI, which combines data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equality, and income
Lingua Franca
Agreed upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics succh as international business, politics, sports or entertainment.
nation-state
A relatively homogenous cultural group (a nation) with its own political territory (the state).
Population pyramid
The structure of a population, which includes the percentage of young and old, is presented graphically as a population pyramid. This graph plots the percentage of all different age groups along a vertical axis that divides the population into male and female.
rate of natural increase
The standard statistic used to express natural population growth per year for a country,
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children who will be borne by women of a hypothetical, yet statistically valid, population, such as that of a specific cultural group or within a particular country. More reliable than crude birthrate.
biome
Ecologically inteactive flora and fauna adapted to a specific environment. ie deserts and tropical rainforests.
bioregion
A spatial unit or region of local plants and animals adapted to a specific environment, such as a tropical savannah.
climate region
A region of similar climatic conditions. An example is the marine west coast climate regions found on the west coasts of North America and Europe.
climograph
A graph of average annual temperature and precipitation data by month and season.
desertification
The spread of desert conditions into semiarid areas due to improper management of the land.
global warming
An increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere
Green Revolution
highly productive agricultural techniques developed since the 1960s that entail the use of new hybrid plant varieties combined with large applicants of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Generally applied to agricultural changes in developing countries, particularly India.
Greenhouse Effect
The natural process of lower atmospheric heating that results from the trapping of incoming and reradiated solar energy by water moisture, clouds and other atmospheric gases.
apartheid
The policy of racial separateness that directed the separate residential and work spaces for white, blacks, coloureds, and Indians in South Africa. Abolished in 1944.
Berlin Conference
1884. Divided African into European colonial territories. The boundaries satisfied European ambition but ignored indigenous cultural affiliations. Many civil rights conflict can be traced to this.
clan
Larger than a family, smaller than a tribe
pastoralist
nomadic shepherds
Sahel
Semi-arid land on the southern border of the Sahara desert
Swidden
Slash and burn farming practice. The process of burning and mixing ash into soil gets minerals and nitrients back into soil
Globalization and Culture
Global consumer culture reduces local diversity.
Creates tension between traditional and globalizing currents.
Non-material culture affected: language, movie phrases, social values.
Geopolitics
Essential part of globalization not restricted by territorial or natural boundaries.
Social dimension of globalization
Migration has dratically changed demographics of US and Europe.
Supporters of Globalization
-Enhances competition
-Believe poor countries will eventually catch up to advanced countries
-Argue that sweatshops promote indutry
World Bank
Primary finction is to make loans to poor countries to invest in infrastructure and economic foundations
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Short term loans to those who are struggling
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Smaller organization, works to reduce trade barriers between countries
Critics of Globalization
-Benefits rich, not poor.
-Not natural
-In the US, wealthiest 10% reap benefits, poorest 10% have decline in income or jobs lost to outsourcing
Middle ground on Globalization
-Economic Globalization is unavoidable
-Critics use globalization to support their campaign against it!
Consequences of Diversity
The world is becoming blandly homogenous as different places, peoples and environments lose thier distinctive character and become indistinguishable from their neighbors.
Harmattan
Dry, dusty air that looks like fog, comes off the Sahara Desert and deposits dirt and dust far away.
Population momentum
If Chad’s TFR changed from 6.0 to 2.1 suddenly, the population would continue to grow before it tapered off.
Tropics
between 23.5 degrees north and south; only place on earht where the sun will be directly over your head.
Inter-Tropic Conversion Zone
-Low pressure area along the equator
-Solar Radiation moves pressure north in the summer, south in the winter
Culture
learned and shared behavior by a group of people empowering them with a way of life
Major powers in colonialism
British, French, Portuguese and Belgians
Changga
Group of people who live on Kilimanjaro along the border of the Kilimanjaro National Park (about 6000 feet above sea level)
Highest peak on Kilimanjaro
Kibo
Two smaller peaks on Kilimajaro
Shira and Mawenzi
Characteristics of high pressure
-sunny skies
-pushes air down
-Holds more moisture, clouds disappear and then it warms up
Characteristics of low pressure
-cloudy, rainy
-cools down
-begins to rise
Insolation
Incoming solar radiation. Tropics get more of this than anywhere else
How is globalization driving a fundamental reorganization of economics and cultures?
-instantaneous global communication
-growth of transnational corporations
-spread of Western consumer habits
Global geopolitical issues
-terrorism at the top, triggered by local groups with limited agendas
-ethnic strife
-border disputes
-movements for regional autonomy and independence
The four main population and settlement issues in developing regions of the world
-rapid population growth
-family planning
-migration to new centers of economic activity
-rapid urbanization
Major theme in cultural geography
Tension between forces of global homogenization and the countercurrents of local and ethnic identity. Small groups are setting themselves apart and emphasizing their own culture.
Effects of cultural tension on geopolitics
-global terrorism
-ethnic stife
-territorial disputes
-border tensions due to cultural differences
-new military approach required
Dominating theme of economic and social development
The increasing disparity between rich and poor.
What drives global environmental change?
Human activities. Most are largely beneficial, like irrigation. But some are negative, like global warming from fossil fuel use.
Positive aspects of globalization

-Sharing of information

-Increased awareness of environmental issues

-Facilitates a new willingness of countries to work together to solve enironmental problems

Critcis of globalization
-economic globalization is responsible for increased environmental degradation
Africa is called the _____________ continent because it is dominated by extensive uplifted plains.
Plateau
Fastest growing region in Africa
Sub-Sahara. Also the pooret region, 3/4 of population lives on less thn $2 a day.
Diversity of Sub-Saharan Africa
Extremely diverse region, multi-ethnic and multi-religious societies are the norm.
Formerly conflict ridden areas of Africa that currently coexist peacefully.
Angola, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Democratic Republic of Congo
Areas of Arica that have ongoing territorial disputes.
Sudan, Congo and Somolia. These countries have produced millions of refugees.
Sub-Saharan Africa’s global economy.
Weak. 12% of world population, but only about 2% of the world’s eceonomic activity. Most tie comes from aid or loans, not trade. China is starting to invest in this area.
Africa’s most pressing issue
Poverty.
Culture hearth
An area of historical cultural innovation
Hajj
An Islamic religious pilgrimage to Makkah. One of five essential pillars of the Muslim creed to be undertaken once in life, if an individual is physically and financially able to do it.
hydropolitics
The interplay of water resource issues and politics
Islamic fundamentalism
A movement within both the Shiite and Sunni Muslim traditions to return to a more conservative, religious-based society and state. Often associated with a rejection of Western culture and with a political aim to merge civic and religious authority.
Maghreb
A region in northwestern Africa that includes portions of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
Medina
The original urban core of a traditional Islamic city.
Pastoral nomadism
A traditional subsistence agricultural system in which practitioners depend on the seasonal movements of livestock within marginal natural environments.
Shiites
Muslims who practice one of the two main branches of Islam. Shiites are especially dominant in IRan and nearby southern Iraq.
Sunnis
Muslims who practice the dominant branch of Islam.

theocratic state

or theocracy

A political state led by religious authorities.
Dominant religions in SW Asia and N Africa
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
SW Asia and N Africa global role
Critical role in world history and in processes of globalization that bind the planet together ever more tightly
Spatial diffusion
The process by which a concept, practice or substance spreads from its point of origin to new territories
Relocation diffusion
A group starts in one area, part of it moves elsewhere. IE The Church moving to Utah, the Spanish to America
Contagious expansion
Distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item thru direct contact
Hierarchal expansion
idea or innovation spreads by trickling down from larger to smaller areas
Expansion diffusion
Spreadking of an innovation or idea through a fix population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger.
Five Pillars of Islam
Daily Prayer
Trip to Mecca
Statement of faith
Alms
Ramadam
Categories: Geography