Chapter 8: The Rise of Rome

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Praetors
interpreted law and acted as judges
Latifundia
large farming estates worked by enslaved people
First Triumvirate
Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
Aqueduct
a human-made channel for carrying water long distances
Sicily
an island that is part of Italy
Plebeians
artisans, shopkeepers, and owners of small farms
First Punic War
Rome defeated Carthage in 241 BC, war was fought over control of Sicily
Cicero
Rome’s greatest public speaker
Dictator
ruled on a temporary basis during an emergency
Third Punic War
Rome enslaved 50,000 Carthaginians, took control of Carthage
Roman Confederation
system of rule where Rome gave full citizenship to some conquered people
Pax Romana
200 years of peace that began with the rule of Augustus
Aeneid
legend of Trojan hero said to have begun Rome
Patricians
wealthy landowners
Second Triumvirate
Octavian, Antony, Lepidus
Romulus and Remus
traditional legend explaining the beginning of Rome.
267 BC
Romans took over most of Italy
287 BC
Council of the Plebs could pass laws
Twelve Tables
Rome’s first written laws
Second Punic
Carthage attacked Rome
March 15, 44 BC
Caesar’s enemies killed him
Octavian
took the title of Augustus
Hadrian
built a wall for defense in Britain
Italy
a peninsula shaped like a boot
Rome’s foundation
between 800 BC and 700 BC
509 BC
began a Republic
Cincinnatus
a dictator who served for 16 days
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
wanted to give land to the poor.
Battle of Actium
Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian
Julio-Claudian rulers
Caligula, Nero, Tiberius, and Claudius
How did geography affect where Rome was located?
Rome was located 15 mile sup the Tiber River in order to protect the city from raid by pirates. The river provided a source of water and a waterway to the Mediterranean Sea. The city was built on seven steep hills that allowed Romans to defend the city against enemies.
What reforms did Julius Caesar introduce in Rome? What effect did they have?
Julius Caesar granted citizenship to people living in Rome’s territory outside the Italian peninsula. He started colonies to give landless people land to farm. He ordered landowners who used slave labor to hire more free people to give jobs to unemployed people. All of these measures made Caesar popular with porr people of Rome.
Describe the development of the Council of the Plebs.
The plebeians began taking action to get more rights in the Roman government in 494 BC., when many of them refused to serve in the army and also left the city to set up their own republic. These moves convinced the patricians to share power. In 471 BC, the plebeians were allowed to set up a body of representatives called the Council of the Plebs. They elected tribunes who had the right to veto government decisions. IN 287 BC, the Council of the Plebs won the right to pass laws for all Romans.
How did Augustus pave the way for 200 years of peace and prosperity?
Augustus built a permanent, professional army, as well as the Praetorian Guard, to protect the emperor. He rebuilt Rome. He imported grain to feed the poor. He improved Rome’s government. He made the tax system fairer by making tax collectors government workers. He also reformed the legal system.
Categories: Geography