Elements of Physical Geography Exam 3

Landforms (definition)
a surface expression of Earth’s geology
Crust
the top layer of the Earth where all organisms live, it composes less than one percent of all Earth’s mass, about 5-25 miles deep
Mantle
the molten middle layer of the Earth, about 1800 miles deep
Core
the source of the heat that drives the churning of the Earth, about 2100 miles below the Earth’s surface
Asthenosphere
the layer below the lithosphere that is plastic and provides cushion for the churning motion of the lithosphere
Lithosphere
the region of the Earth made of hard and brittle rock, it composes the crust and upper mantle
Lithospheric Plates
approximately 12 major plates that make up the Earth’s surface
Types of Lithospheric Plate Boundaries
divergent, convergent, and transform
Classification of Lithospheric Plate Boundaries
based upon the movement of the plates at the boundaries
Types of Tectonic Stresses
tension, compression, and shear
Types of Tectonic Activities
Diastrophisism and Volcanism
Diastrophism
deformation of the Earth’s crust caused by the movement of the lithospheric plates
Types of Diastrophism
Folding and Faulting
Folding
caused by the compression of convergent plates
Faulting
fracturing of rock by the motion of lithospheric plates where the rock across the fractures have discontinuity
earthquakes
the result of faulting, occurs when the plasticity of the rocks is exceeded, which causes a release of energy
dip-slip faulting
this is formed where is tension
types of dip-slip faulting
normal dip-slip and reverse dip slip
Categories: Geography